Published on February 11, 2008
The Ceramics Industry in Turkey: The Ceramics Industry in Turkey Ceramics are amongst Turkey’s oldest and best known products. The first notable ceramics from Turkish land were the tiles and bricks covered with colored glazes made in Anatolia for architectural purposes in the 13th Century. The Turkish classical art of “Chinaware” (Çini in Turkish) is still famous throughout the world. Early Turkish tribes who lived in Central Asia made the first examples of this ceramic art for their kitchen and household use. Later, with the Seljuk movement this art came to Anatolia and became a decorative art piece, which was mostly used in the decoration of mosques, public libraries and Turkish baths. Despite the name of the art, which means “Chinese style”, it is originally a Turkish art. Commercial production of ceramics started in 1965 with foundation of the first technological plant in this field. Today, there are about 28 firms in the ceramic wall and floor tiles sector; 17 firms in the sanitaryware sector and eight in the households sector. Some 30 small scale ones also produce sanitaryware. There are hundreds of small workshops dealing in production in household articles sub-sector, as well. There are two companies in the technical ceramics sub-sector and some 10 companies in the refractory materials sub-sector. The Ceramics Industry in Turkey: The Ceramics Industry in Turkey The major part of production belongs to ceramic wall and floor tiles in the ceramics industry. The second important group of items is sanitaryware and the third is household articles. Turkey ranks 5th in the world and 3 rd in the Europe in the production of ceramic tiles. It also ranks 3 rd in Europe and 4th in the world in the production of ceramic sanitaryware, as well. Turkey is the largest sanitaryware producer in Europe. The total production capacity of the sector is about 15 million units. Exports of the ceramic industry have been increasing steadily. In 2004 exports totalled to 639.8 million US dollars. Approximately 50% of the exports are directed to the EU countries. Turkey ranks 3 rd both in the world and in Europe in the exports of tiles following Italy and Spain. The second important group of products in the exports is sanitaryware. Turkey ranks 5th in Europe in the exports of sanitaryware following Italy, Germany, France and Spain. Ceramics History: Ceramics History Archeologists have uncovered human-made ceramics that date back to at least 24,000 BC. These ceramics were found in Czechoslovakia and were in the form of animal and human figurines, slabs, and balls. These ceramics were made of animal fat and bone mixed with bone ash and a fine claylike material. After forming, the ceramics were fired at temperatures between 500-800°C in domed and horseshoe shaped kilns partially dug into the ground with loess walls. While it is not clear what these ceramics were used for, it is not thought to have been a utilitarian one. The first use of functional pottery vessels is thought to be in 9,000 BC. These vessels were most likely used to hold and store grain and other foods. It is thought that ancient glass manufacture is closely related to pottery making, which flourished in Upper Egypt about 8,000 BC. While firing pottery, the presence of calcium oxide containing sand combined with soda and the overheating of the pottery kiln may have resulted in a colored glaze on the ceramic pot. Experts believe that it was not until 1,500 BC that glass was produced independently of ceramics and fashioned into separate items. Since these ancient times, the technology and applications of ceramics (including glass) has steadily increased. We often take for granted the major role that ceramics have played in the progress of humankind. Ceramics History: Ceramics History The word ceramic can be traced back to the Greek term keramos, meaning "a potter" or "pottery." Keramos in turn is related to an older Sanskrit root meaning "to burn." Thus the early Greeks used the term to mean "burned stuff" or "burned earth" when referring to products obtained through the action of fire upon earthy materials. Ceramics can be defined as inorganic, nonmetallic materials. They are typically crystalline in nature and are compounds formed between metallic and nonmetallic elements such as aluminum and oxygen, calcium and oxygen, and silicon and nitrogen. The broad categories or segments that make up the ceramic industry can be classified as follows: structural clay products; whitewares; refractories; glasses; abrasives; cements; advanced ceramics. Ceramics Cathegories: Ceramics Cathegories Among the most common structural clay products we can point out: bricks, sewer pipes, roofing tiles, clay floor and wall tiles (i.e., quarry tiles) and flue linings. Whitewares As for witewares they are: dinnerware, floor and wall tile, sanitaryware, electrical porcelain and decorative ceramics. Refractories Within the refractories we have the: bricks and monolithic products that are used in iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, glass, cements, ceramics, energy conversion, petroleum, and chemicals industries. Glasses As glasses we have: flat glass (windows), container glass (bottles), pressed and blown glass (dinnerware), glass fibers (home insulation), and advanced/specialty glass (optical fibers). Structural Clay Products Ceramics Cathegories: Abrasives Cements In the abrasives we can enroll: natural (garnet, diamond, etc.) and synthetic (silicon carbide, diamond, fused alumina, etc.), abrasives that are used for grinding, cutting, polishing, lapping, or pressure blasting of materials. As for cements they are components used to: produce concrete roads, bridges, buildings, dams, and the like. Advanced Ceramics Advanced ceramics can be: Structural Wear parts, bioceramics, cutting tools, and engine components; Electrical Capacitors, insulators, substrates, integrated circuit packages, piezoelectrics, magnets and superconductors; Coatings Engine components, cutting tools, and industrial wear parts; Chemical and environmental Filters, membranes, catalysts, and catalyst supports; Ceramics Cathegories Turkish Production and Exports: Turkish Production and Exports Turkish Exports By Sub-Sectors: Turkish Exports By Sub-Sectors Ceramics Manufacturing: Ceramics Manufacturing Ceramics are typically produced by the application of heat upon processed clays and other natural raw materials to form a rigid product. Ceramic products that use naturally occurring rocks and minerals as a starting material must undergo special processing in order to control purity, particle size, particle size distribution, and heterogeneity. These attributes play a big role in the final properties of the finished ceramic. Chemically prepared powders also are used as starting materials for some ceramic products. These synthetic materials can be controlled to produce powders with precise chemical compositions and particle size. The next step is to form the ceramic particles into a desired shape. This is accomplished by the addition of water and/or additives such as binders, followed by a shape forming process. Some of the most common forming methods for ceramics include extrusion, slip casting, pressing, tape casting and injection molding. After the particles are formed, these "green" ceramics undergo a heat-treatment (called firing or sintering) to produce a rigid, finished product. Some ceramic products such as electrical insulators, dinnerware and tile may then undergo a glazing process. Ceramics for advanced applications may undergo a machining and/or polishing step in order to meet specific engineering design criteria. Glass Manufacturing: Glass Manufacturing The processing of glass products is different than for ceramics. In glass production, raw materials such as silica, lime, and soda ash are melted in a furnace, then formed into the desired shape (i.e.; pressed plate, fibers, molded bottle, plate glass, etc.) while still molten. After the molten glass is formed, it is quickly cooled, "freezing" the glass into place to form the finished product. The glass typically undergoes additional processing steps such as cutting, etching, coating, grinding, decorating, or heat treating (tempering). Advanced and specialty glasses play important roles in several industries. In the last several years, these materials have continued to find new applications in the areas of telecommunications, electronics, and biomedical uses. Glass compositions and processing techniques continue to evolve to suit the increasing number of applications. Some of the glass compositions have distinctive properties that make them the most preferred materials for certain applications, such as optical fibers, electronic displays, biocompatible implants, dental posterior materials, and high-performance composites. Structure and Properties : Structure and Properties The properties of ceramic materials, like all materials, are dictated by the types of atoms present, the types of bonding between the atoms, and the way the atoms are packed together. This is their atomic scale structure. Most ceramics are made up of two or more elements. This is called a compound. The two most common chemical bonds for ceramic materials are covalent and ionic. The bonding of atoms together is much stronger in covalent and ionic bonding than in metallic. That is why, metals are ductile and ceramics are brittle. Another structure that plays an important factor in the final property of a material is called microstructure. For ceramics, the microstructure can be entirely glassy; entirely crystalline; or a combination of crystalline and glassy. The atomic structure primarily effects the chemical, physical, thermal, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties. The microstructure also can effect these properties but has its major effect on mechanical properties and on the rate of chemical reaction. Structure and Properties: Structure and Properties Due to ceramic materials wide range of properties, they are used for a multitude of applications. In general, most ceramics are: hard; wear-resistant; brittle; refractory; thermal insulators; electrical insulators; nonmagnetic; oxidation resistant; prone to thermal shock; chemically stable. Of course there are many exceptions to these generalizations. For example, borosilicate glasses and certain glass ceramics are very resistant to thermal shock and are used in applications such as ovenware, stove tops and kiln furniture respectively. Also, some ceramics are excellent electrical conductors and others have magnetic properties. Advance and Specialty Glasses: Advance and Specialty Glasses A number of ceramic processes have been successfully applied in glass processing to make advanced glasses. These include sintering of premelted and pulverized or chemically treated glasses, sol-gel technology, and vapor phase deposition. Glass ceramics with complicated shapes can be produced by the sintering of glass powders, similar to a ceramic sintering process, and then applying additional heat treatment to form ceramic crystals. The emergence of these advanced glasses has significantly changed several major industries, including the telecommunications industry where fiber optic cables revolutionized the technology of transmitting information. Other areas where advanced and specialty glasses and glass ceramics find increasing usage are electronics applications, such as electronic displays, substrates for packaging and data storage, and photoblanks for lithography. High-performance glass and glass ceramics are also being used as reinforcements or matrices for advanced composites for structural and aerospace materials. Because some advanced glasses and glass ceramics are biocompatible, they can be used as implants and dental posterior materials. Glass beads are also being used in radiation therapy to treat certain kinds of cancer. Another important application is glass substrates for DNA analysis. Bulletproof: Bulletproof Tougher and more resistance glasses are being developed to withstand great impacts resulting from projectiles as bullets. Currently these bulletproof glasses are able to sustain even an anti-tank weapon projectile. Further uses for this technology apart from the personal defense field can be found in the thematic parks where exhibitions of animals or materials demand strong transparent containers. This can be seen on aquatic parks where underwater life is being displayed. Cancer Fighting Glass: Cancer Fighting Glass It consists of a promising new treatment for deadly liver cancer that uses tiny radioactive glass beads. Sent directly into the liver to attack cancerous tumors, the beads deliver a potent treatment while leaving surrounding healthy tissue undamaged. Patients’ lives have been extended by this cutting edge treatment that already is in use in Canada and is expected to receive approval for use in the U.S.. Like liver cancer the potentiality to use these techniques in other sorts of cancers are high and the potential market is enormous. Radioactive Waste: Radioactive Waste Radioactive waste “vitrification” or ceramic encapsulation - recognized in many circles as the best method to clean up and store nuclear waste for the long term – is a safe process that enables to help controlling otherwise dangerous radioactive wastes. As oil continues with it’s rising trend and the world searches for other energetic alternatives, amongst which is atomic energy, it is likely that radioactive wastes increases. This will lead to a growing demand for safe ways to dispose those wastes increasing priceless role of this industry. Sports: Sports Ceramics are being used to revolutionize sports equipment such as golf clubs, tennis rackets, baseball bats and skis. These new-age “smart” devices are all the rage these days because they adjust to reduce vibration, increase reliability and improve performance. Fields of Usage: Fields of Usage Ceramics can be used in a wide range of fields and new applications are constantly being added to the list as this industry develops and constantly improves the properties of their ceramics. Some of the current fields where its usage is more widespread are: Refractories; Construction Industry; Lighting Electrical; Electrical Applications; Communication; Medical; Environmental and Space Applications. Refractories : Refractories The metal production would not be possible without the use of a ceramic material called refractories. This because refractories can withstand volatile and high-temperature conditions encountered in the processing of metals. Refractory ceramics are enabling materials for other industries as well. The chemical, petroleum, energy conversion, glass and other ceramic industries all rely upon refractory materials to face those extreme conditions. Construction Industry : Construction Industry The multi-billion dollar construction industry encompasses areas such as commercial buildings, residential homes, highways, bridges, and water and sewer systems. These areas would not be possible without ceramic materials. Products such as floor, wall and roofing tile, cement, brick, gypsum, sewer pipe, and glass are the building blocks in the world of construction. The applications of glass in the construction industry include various types of windows to let in natural light. Approximately three billion square feet of glass is produced each year to make various types of windows. The different types of glass for windows include safety, stained, tinted, laminated and non-reflective. Additionally, glass fibers are used for insulation, ceiling panels and roofing shingles, helping us stay warm and dry. Clay brick is used to build homes and commercial buildings because of its strength, durability, and beauty. Brick is the only building product that will not burn, melt, dent, peel, warp, rot, rust or be eaten by termites. Ceramic tile is used in applications such as flooring, walls, countertops, and fireplaces. Lighting Electrical : Lighting Electrical One invention that changed the lives of millions of people was the incandescent light bulb. This important invention would not be possible without the use of glass. Glass properties of hardness, transparency, and its ability to withstand high temperatures and hold a vacuum at the same time made the light bulb a reality. The evolution of lighting technology since this time has been characterized by the invention of increasingly brighter and more efficient light sources. Also other usages for these materials were found in the light-emitting diode (LED) technology, that has applications in watches, instrument panel indicators, telecommunications (optical fiber networks), data storage (CD technology), and document production (laser printers). Electrical Applications : Electrical Applications The vast electronic industry would not exist without ceramics. Ceramics have a wide range of electrical properties including insulating, semi-conducting, superconducting, piezoelectric and magnetic. Ceramics are critical to products such as cell phones, computers, television, and other consumer electronic products. Magnetic storage of data has developed in parallel with semiconductor computer chips and has been equally vital to computing and information handling. Without magnetic storage there would be no Internet, no personal computers, no large databases which computers now manipulate. Ceramics are even being used to enhance our sporting activities. Piezoelectric ceramics (piezoceramics) are being used to make "smart" sporting goods equipment. That is, sporting goods that can respond to its surrounding environment in order to increase its effectiveness. Uses include snow skis, baseball/softball bats, and shock absorbers in mountain bicycles. Ceramic spark plugs, which are electrical insulators, have had a large impact on society. Applications include automobiles, boat engines, lawnmowers, and the like. High voltage insulators make it possible to safely carry electricity to houses and businesses. Communication: Communication Glass optic fibers have provided a technological breakthrough in the area of telecommunications. Information that was once carried electrically through hundreds of copper wires can now be carried through one high-quality, transparent, silica (glass) fiber. Using this technology has increased the speed and volume of information that can be carried by orders of magnitude over that which is possible using copper cable. Optical fibers are a reliable conduit for delivering an array of interactive services, using combinations of voice, data and video. Whether it is multimedia and video applications, high-speed data transmissions and Internet access, telecommuting or sophisticated, on-demand services, optical fibers make it easier to communicate. With a single pair of fiber optics, made into glass no thicker than a human hair, now carrying up to 50,000 simultaneous telephone calls across the world. Medical: Medical Ceramics are becoming increasingly useful to the medical world. Surgeons are using bioceramic materials for repair and replacement of human hips, knees, and other body parts. Ceramics also are being used to replace diseased heart valves. When used in the human body as implants or even as coatings to metal replacements, ceramic materials can stimulate bone growth, promote tissue formation and provide protection from the immune system. Dentists are using ceramics for tooth replacement implants and braces. Glass microspheres smaller than a human hair are being used to deliver large, localized amounts of radiation to diseased organs in the body. Ceramics are one of the few materials that are durable and stable enough to withstand the corrosive effect of bodily fluids. Imaging systems are critical for medical diagnostics. Modern ceramic materials play an important role in both ultrasonic and X-ray computed tomography (CT) systems. Transducers utilizing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based piezoelectric ceramics are the heart of ultrasonic systems. Ultrasound can be used to examine many parts of the body including the abdomen, breasts, female pelvis, prostate, thyroid and parathyroid, and the vascular system. GE Medical Systems unveiled an ultrahigh-performance detector with a breakthrough ceramic scintillator, which gives better images using lower x-ray doses to the patient. Limbs Replacements: Limbs Replacements Ceramics are being used increasingly to replace fingers, knees, hips, heart valves, teeth and other body parts due to their toughness and ability to provoke bone and tissue growth. “Biocompatible” ceramics have improved the lives of thousands in recent years. Marine coral is being transformed into synthetic bone and tissue products for use in thousands of spinal fusion, bone graft and other procedures each year. Environmental and Space Applications: Environmental and Space Applications Ceramics play an important role in addressing various environmental needs. They help decrease pollution, capture toxic materials and encapsulate nuclear waste. Today's catalytic converters in trucks and cars are made of cellular ceramics and help convert noxious hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide gases into harmless carbon dioxide and water. Advanced ceramic components are starting to be used in diesel and automotive engines. Ceramics light-weight, high-temperature and wear resistant properties results in more efficient combustion and significant fuel savings. Ceramics also are used in oil spill containment booms that corral oil so it can be towed away from ships, harbors, or offshore oil drilling rigs before being burned off safely. Reusable, lightweight, ceramic tile make NASA's space shuttle program possible. The 34,000 thermal barrier tiles protect the astronauts and the shuttles aluminum frame from the extreme temperatures (up to approximately 1600°C) encountered upon re-entry into the earth's atmosphere. Raw Materials Used: Raw Materials Used Alumina and Bauxite Boron Clays Feldspar Fluorspar Kaolin Lithium Magnesium Compounds Natural Graphite Silica Soda Ash Talc or Pyrophyllite Wollastonite Zircon Boron: Boron The glass industry remains the largest end user of boric oxide with 71%. Turkey is the largest producer of boron ore in the world at over 40%. Chinese researchers have patented a process for preparing low-cost ceramic fritted glazes using szaibelyite, a mineral rich in boron. This mineral may compete with both boron and magnesium compounds, since it replaces borax, boric acid and raw materials containing magnesium. The global consumption of all borates is around 1 million tons per year. Wollastonite is a calcium metasilicate mineral that may contain small amounts of aluminum, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, and sodium. China is the leading producing country. Some of the properties that make wollastonite so useful are its high brightness and whiteness, low moisture and oil absorption, and low volatile content. Wollastonite is used primarily in ceramics, friction products (brakes and clutches), metalmaking, paint, and plastics. It is also utilized as an additive in ceramic bodies and glazes. Wollastonite fires white to gray, matures at a slightly lower firing temperature than most conventional ceramic bodies and can be fired at a faster rate. The firing temperature is 991ºC to 1196ºC. It has been reported that certain wollastonite bodies can be fired along with the glazes thus eliminating a second firing. Wollastonite Feldspar: Feldspar Feldspar is used as bonding agent along with magnesium oxide, magnesium chloride and other synthetic glue in the manufacture of abrasives, wheels, discs and other shapes. Feldspar comprises a group of minerals containing potassium, sodium, calcium and aluminium silicates. They are the single most abundant mineral group on Earth. Together, the varieties of feldspar account for one half of the Earth’s crust. In pottery and glass, feldspar functions as a flux. Turkey, which began producing feldspar in the 1980s, became the world’s second largest producer in 2003, after Italy. In response to increasing demand for higher quality feldspar, Turkish producers are turning to more sophisticated methods of production and ore dressing. There is ample geologic evidence that resources are large, although not always conveniently accessible to the principal centers of consumption. Feldspar can be replaced in some of its end uses by clays, electric furnace slag, feldspar-silica mixtures, pyrophyllite, spodumene, or talc. Strong growth in the production of ceramics, particularly in Italy, Spain and China has been the main driver of the steady rise in feldspar demand seen over the past 20 years, and will remain a major factor in the feldspar industry’s future growth. The ceramics industry consumes around 7.7 million tones of feldspar and nepheline syenite each year, accounting for around 55% of total world demand and over 70% of European demand. The second largest market for feldspar is the glass industry, accounting for 35% of world demand. Companies in China, France, Italy, Thailand, Turkey and the USA accounted for around 65% of world feldspar output in 2001. Feldspar is used to make dinnerware and bathroom and building tiles. In glasssmaking, feldspar provides alumina for improving durability, hardness, and resistance to chemical corrosion. Clays: The term clay refers to a number of earthy materials that are composed of minerals rich in alumina, silica and water. Clay is not a single mineral, but a number of minerals. Clay is easily found all over the world. Ball clays are good quality clays used mostly in pottery but are also added to other clays to improve their plasticity and is a material easily molded or shaped and changed into a glasslike material. One third of the ball clay used annually is used to make floor and wall tiles. It is also used to make sanitary ware, pottery, and other uses. The nations producing the most significant amounts of the various clays are as follows: Kaolin: Brazil, United Kingdom, and the United States are the dominant producers of high quality kaolin. Ball clays: Major producers of ball clays are Germany, the United States, United Kingdom, the Czech Republic, China, and France. Fire clays: Major fire clay producing countries are Germany, and the United States. Bentonite: Major producers of bentonite are the United States, Germany, Turkey, and Greece. Fuller’s earth: Major producers of fuller’s earth are the United States (attapulgite, smectite), Spain (attapulgite, sepiolite), and Senegal (attapulgite). Clays Fluorspar: Fluorspar is found in granite it fills cracks and holes in sandstone, and it is found in large deposits in limestone. Pure fluorspar is colorless, but a variety of impurities give fluorite a rainbow of different colors, including green, purple, blue, yellow, pink, brown, and black. It has a pronounced cleavage, which means it breaks on flat planes. Olivine and/or dolomitic limestone can be used as substitutes for fluorspar. The chemical industry is the largest user of fluorspar. Some 1.8Mt were consumed in this sector in 2003 with 50% going in to the manufacture of fluorocarbons. China, the world's largest producer of fluorspar, with 51% of world output, is now also becoming one of the major consumers. World resources are estimated at 500 million tones. The main fluorspar-exporting countries are China, Mexico, South Africa and Mongolia which together account for 80% of all exported fluorspar. Fluorspar Kaolin Kaolin is a clay mineral more correctly known as kaolinite. It is also called china clay. Kaolin is made up of individual crystals that form units termed "booklets" of stacked sheets. Kaolin is a soft mineral, white in color when it is fairly pure. Although about 80 per cent of all kaolin production is used in paper, other uses include fillers for rubber, plastic, paint and adhesives, as well as in ceramics such as porcelain and refractory products. World reserves are of 14.2 billion tons and they are mostly concentrated in the United States (58.3%), Brazil (28.5%) and Ukraine (6.9%). Turkey produced 400000 tones in 2003. The biggest producers are the USA (38.8%), United Kingdom (10.2%), Brazil (7.9%), Ukraine (5.1%) and China (4.9%). Lithium: Lithium minerals are used in glass and ceramic industries for their lithia content. It is a naturally occurring substance that is widely distributed in trace amounts in most rocks, soils and natural waters. Lepidolite, spodumene and amblygonite are used along with glass sand-batch for the manufacture of lithium glass. It has the lowest melting point and lowest annealing temperature of all alkali glasses. Lithium reduces its co-efficient of expansion. Chile is the largest lithium chemical producer in the world, followed by Argentina, China, Russia, and the United States. Australia, Canada, and Zimbabwe are the major producers of lithium ore concentrates. The use of lithium compounds in ceramics, glass, and primary aluminum production represented more than 60% of estimated consumption. Some of the lithium compounds are used as rocket propellants and in nuclear reactors. The identified lithium resources are more than 13 million tons. Substitutes for lithium compounds are possible in manufactured glass, ceramics, greases, and batteries. Examples are sodic and potassic fluxes in ceramics and glass manufacture; calcium and aluminum soaps as substitutes for stearates in greases; and calcium, magnesium, mercury, and zinc as anode material in primary batteries. Lithium Alumina and Bauxite About 60% of all calcined alumina and 90% of tabular alumina is consumed by refractories. Global markets for these materials have been estimated at around 2 million and 300,000 tons per year, respectively. Magnesium Compounds: Magnesium Compounds World consumption of magnesium compounds is dominated by the refractories industry, which accounts for around 70-80% of global usage. Overall consumption of dead burned magnesia, caustic calcined magnesia and fused magnesia will rise to around 8 million tones in 2008, compared to 7.6 million tones in 2005. Resources from which magnesium compounds can be recovered range from large to virtually unlimited and are globally widespread. Identified world resources of magnesite total 12 billion tons. Resources of dolomite, forsterite, and magnesium-bearing evaporite minerals are enormous, and magnesia-bearing brines are estimated to constitute a resource in billions of tons. Magnesium hydroxide can be recovered from seawater. Alumina, silica, and chromite substitute for magnesia in some refractory applications. The world's leading producers of magnesium metal are China, Canada, and Russia. Natural Graphite: Natural Graphite Natural Graphite is generally grayish-black, opaque and has a lustrous black sheen. It is unique in that it has properties of both a metal and a non-metal. It is flexible but not elastic, has a high thermal and electrical conductivity, and is highly refractory and chemically inert. Graphite has a low adsorption of X-rays and neutrons making it a particularly useful material in nuclear applications. Natural graphite is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. It is stable over a wide range of temperatures. Graphite is a highly refractory material with a high melting point (3650C.) Due to its high temperature stability and chemical inertness graphite is a good component for refractory production. Graphite is mainly used in brake linings and in refractories. Natural graphite occurs in many parts of the world in fair abundance and it has been used for ages in various applications. China is the principle graphite producer, accounting for 40% of the world's output and India is another leading producer, accounting for 15%. The other major producers are Brazil (7%), Mexico (6%) and North Korea (6%) Thus, five countries account for 75% of world production. The main use for natural graphite is in refractories - accounting for approximately 45% of the consumption. The world's inferred reserve base exceeds 800 million tons of recoverable graphite. Silica: Silica Silica is the most abundant mineral found in the crust of the earth. It forms an important constituent of practically all rock-forming minerals. It is found in a variety of forms, as quartz crystals, massive forming hills, quartz sand (silica sand), sandstone, quartzite, tripoli, diatomite, flint, opal, chalcedonic forms like agate, onyx etc. It expands under the influence of electric current and conversely pressure induces a measurable electric current. This property resulting from the asymmetry of its atomic groups makes quartz an effective transducer for coverting electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice-versa. The commonest use of quartz and glass-sand, also referred to as silica-sand, is in the manufacture of glass. Glass-sand free from organic and clayey impurities is used in the manufacture of sand-paper, abrasive cloth etc. Quartzite, sandstone, quartz and other siliceous rocks lime mica schists are used in the manufacture of silica bricks. Quartzite contains mainly silica and has high refractoriness. Most of the world supply of silica comes from Brazil. Soda Ash: Soda Ash Soda Ash is the trade name for sodium carbonate, which is a chemical refined from the mineral trona or sodium-carbonate-bearing brines, both of which are referred to as "natural soda ash," or manufactured from one of several chemical processes, which is referred to as "synthetic soda ash." By far, the majority of soda ash is used to make glass. The next largest use is to make a variety of chemicals, followed by soaps and detergents, distributors, the removal of sulfur from smokestack emissions, paper and paper pulp production, water treatment, and other assorted uses. These other uses include oil refining, making synthetic rubber, and explosives. The world’s largest deposit of trona is in the Green River Basin of Wyoming. About 47 billion metric tons of identified soda ash resources could be recovered from the 56 billion tons of bedded trona and the 47 billion tons of interbedded or intermixed trona and halite that are in beds more than 1.2 meters thick. Although soda ash can be manufactured from salt and limestone, both of which are practically inexhaustible, synthetic soda ash is more costly to produce and generates environmentally deleterious wastes. World consumption of soda ash in 2004 was an estimated 38 million tones having grown by an average of 2.6% per year in recent years but is forecast to increase at a higher rate of 3-4% per year through to 2010. Glass will remain the main market for soda ash in the future, consuming an estimated 16-17 million tones. US producers shipped 4.7 million tones (approximately 50% of world total exports) of soda ash to overseas markets in 2004, with an increase largely prompted by the lower value of the US$ against the Euro. Talc or Pyrophyllite: Talc or Pyrophyllite Talc is a hydrous magnesium silicate. It is essentially a secondary mineral formed by the hydrothermal actions and regional metamorphism of magnesium rich rocks like dolomite, pyroxenite, amphibolite, seerpentine, dunite and chlorite. It can withstand temperatures up to 1300ºC. It has low electrical and thermal conductivity. Above all it can be easily powdered, cut and sawn into any shape and size. Talc is increasingly being used in the manufacture of artwares, jars, wall and floor tiles. It serves as a non-plastic ceramic material. The addition of talc in suitable proportions in the body of mixtures for porcelain, a jar etc. prevents the crazing (cracking) effect on the glazes. The proportion of talc in the ceramic body may go up to 80%. It is valued for its refractoriness and stability, as well as extremely low shrinkage at high temperature. Its main uses are in ceramics, paint, paper, and plastics. Talc is mined in many countries. In Europe, Austria, France, Italy, and Norway are the important producers and exporters. Two different minerals with similar physical properties are talc and pyrophyllite. Their physical properties are nearly identical. There are numerous talc and pyrophyllite resources worldwide. Zircon: Zircon The zircon is a common accessory mineral of igneous rocks, like syenite, granite and diorite. Economic deposits are, however, concentrated along the beach sands and found in association with ilmenite, rutile etc., as it occurs in the beach sands of Australia, USA, South Africa, West Africa and India. Zircon has a high refractive index which is responsible for it's diamond like appearance. Zircon, baddeleyite or manufactured zirconia are all useful refractory materials. They are valued for the preparation of special moulds and refractory bricks. High-grade zircon melts at about 2190ºC, softens between 1600ºC and 1800ºC and shows little shrinkage up to 1750ºC. Zircon exhibits many characteristics that make it very suitable for super refractory purposes. In addition to a high melting point it was very low thermal expansion and good resistance to abrasion. Zircon is used when acidic refractory is required while zirconia refractories are considered to be basic. The primary world producers of zircon are Australia, South Africa, and the United States. Ceramics Categories: Ceramics Categories There are four major ceramics material categories which are: Monolitic Ceramics; Ceramics Coatings; Refractories; Ceramic Matrix Composites. Monolithic Ceramics: Monolithic Ceramics The term monolithic has been applied to ceramic materials which are entirely ceramic, typically have low porosity, and comprise a complete component or a lining. Examples include dense forms of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, zirconium oxide, transformation-toughened zirconia, transformation-toughened alumina, and aluminum nitride. Major progress has been accomplished in the past 20 years to increase the capability of monolithic ceramics for thermal, wear, corrosion and structural applications. In particular, the strength and toughness have been dramatically improved to the degree that ceramics are now available that can compete with metals in applications previously thought impossible for ceramics. Silicon Nitride: Silicon Nitride The ceramics in this family have a favorable combination of properties that includes high strength over a broad temperature range, high hardness, moderate thermal conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion, moderately high elastic modulus, and unusually high fracture toughness for a ceramic. This combination of properties leads to excellent thermal shock resistance, ability to withstand high structural loads to high temperature, and superior wear resistance. Much of the development of silicon nitride materials has been has been directed especially towards gas turbine engines and other heat engines. These developments have resulted in improved properties, increased reliability, complex shape fabrication capability, and some cost reduction. As the cost has come down, the number of production applications is accelerating. The key message from the above examples is that this is a generation of ceramics that are much more durable and resistant to brittle fracture than traditional ceramics. It is a strong, tough, lightweight ceramic material ideal for structural applications such as rolling elements for bearing assemblies. Silicon nitride has been used in hybrid ball bearings and offer the following advantages: Higher reliability at high speeds and loads; Higher stiffness; Reduced friction; Electrical insulator; Non-magnetic; Can run with reduced lubrication. Aluminium Oxide: Aluminium Oxide Aluminium Oxide is the most mature high technology ceramic. It is the same composition as sapphire, which accounts for its high hardness and durability. This kind of ceramic is produced by compacting alumina powder into a shape and firing the powder at high temperature to allow it to densify into a solid, polycrystalline, nonporous part. It is used in several applications because of its high hardness and wear resistance, chemical resistance, and smooth surface. It is used extensively for electrical applications due to its good electrical insulating characteristics. Other applications include radomes, medical components, orthodontic Brackets, sodium vapor lamp arc tubes, thermocouple protection tubes, abrasives, heat exchanger balls, glass tank linings, abrasives and polishes, crucibles for metals melting, grinding wheels, and cutting tool inserts. Silicon Carbide: Silicon Carbide Another ceramic that is well-established in the marketplace is Silicon Carbide. It is a family of materials with special characteristics. Most of the Silicon Carbide materials have very high hardness and thus have superior wear resistance. Most have unusually high thermal conductivity for a ceramic, low thermal expansion compared to metals, and very high temperature capability. Relatively pure silicon carbide also has excellent resistance to corrosion in the presence of hot acids and bases. It contains a controlled dispersion of noninterconnected spherical pores that retain some of the working fluid and result in a thin low friction fluid layer between adjacent sliding surfaces. This provides additional wear resistance for some pump and seal applications. Silicon Carbide is also important for tooling in the semiconductor industry, for laser mirrors, as a substrate for wear-resistant diamond coatings, as an abrasive and grinding wheel, as heating elements and igniters, as an additive for reinforcement of metals, and for numerous refractories applications. Transformation-Toughened Zirconia: Transformation-Toughened Zirconia Transformation-toughened zirconium oxide is another important high-strength, high toughness ceramic that is being developed during the past 20–25 years. Transformation toughening was a breakthrough in achieving high-strength, high toughness ceramic materials. For the first time in history a ceramic material was available with an internal mechanism for actually inhibiting crack propagation. A crack in a normal ceramic travels all the way through the ceramic with little inhibition, resulting in immediate brittle fracture. Yet with Transformation-Toughened Zirconia the crack is analogous to the opening of a box. Tetragonal precipitates next to the crack and as they are now able to expand and transform back to their stable monoclinic form stop it’s spreading. This expansion adjacent to the crack presses against the crack and stops it. This is the mechanism of transformation toughening. This material is even tougher than cast iron. Toughened Aluminum Oxide: Toughened Aluminum Oxide Transformation toughening can be achieved in other ceramic materials by additions of particles of partially stabilized zirconia. Toughening occurs if the particles are small, if the host ceramic is strong enough to prevent the particles from transforming during cooling, and if there is no chemical interaction between the materials. Alumina is the most important ceramic that is a suitable host for zirconia toughening. An addition of 15–25% zirconia to alumina results in toughness and strength nearly equivalent to that of pure Tranformation-Toughened Zirconia, but the alumina is cheaper and much lighter in weight. Ceramics Coatings: Ceramics Coatings Coatings are another important ceramics products. In this case, a thin surface layer of ceramic deposited on metal imparts favorable ceramic characteristics such as corrosion resistance or wear resistance while retaining the durability and structural benefits of the metal. The most common applications are for wear resistance or as a thermal barrier (low-thermal-conductivity surface that decreases the temperature that the underlying material is exposed to). They are also under evaluation for increasing the life and temperature capability of hot section components in industrial and utility scale gas turbine engines, diamond coatings on a broad range of substrates and oxide and nitride coatings on carbide cutting tool inserts. The advantages of coatings are the following: Metals can still be used to carry structural loads; Ceramic coatings are typically much lower cost than monolithic ceramics; New design codes typically do not have to be established. Refractories: Refractories A third category of ceramic materials is refractories. Substantial changes have occurred in refractories technology over the past 20 years that have had a crosscutting impact on several of the Industries of the Future. One change that has significantly reduced energy consumption in heat treating furnaces has been to increase the use of fibrous insulation and high-strength porous setter plates. These greatly decrease the total mass of ceramic material that needs to be heated during each cycle, thus reducing energy consumption and allowing for much more rapid cycles. Ceramics Matrix Composites: Ceramics Matrix Composites Ceramic matrix composites combine reinforcing ceramic phases with a ceramic matrix to create materials with new and superior properties. In ceramic matrix composites, the primary goal of the ceramic reinforcement is to provide toughness to an otherwise brittle ceramic matrix. Fillers can also be added to the ceramic matrix during processing to enhance characteristics such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and hardness. The desirable characteristics of Ceramics Matrix Composites include high-temperature stability, high thermal shock resistance, high hardness, high corrosion resistance, light weight, nonmagnetic and nonconductive properties, and versatility in providing unique engineering solutions. The combination of these characteristics makes ceramic matrix composites attractive alternatives to traditional processing industrial materials such as high alloy steels and refractory metals. For the processing industry, related benefits of using ceramic composites include increased energy efficiency, increased productivity, and regulatory compliance. Discontinuous Reinforced Ceramic Composites: Discontinuous Reinforced Ceramic Composites Discontinuous Reinforced Ceramic Composites are produced using processes originally developed for monolithic ceramics. Processing methods commonly used include slip casting or injection molding followed by sintering to full density in a high-temperature-capable furnace. Key benefits include increased tool life, reduced down time, improved surface finish, lower maintenance cost, and increased production rates. Discontinuous Reinforced Ceramic Composites is presently used in cupping, drawing, ironing and can necking tools. They are also being used in the mining and abrasives industry, where use of these ceramics has reduced downtime usually needed for replacing worn parts. provides excellent resistance to dry erosion, slurry erosion, sliding abrasion, thermal shock, and chemical attack. Similar high-wear applications where discontinuous reinforced ceramics have shown improvements include liners for cyclones, pipes, and pump housings. Discontinued Reinforced Ceramics are also being considered for use in a high-pressure heat exchanger designed for use in steam reforming of methane. Continuous Reinforced Ceramic Composites: Continuous Reinforced Ceramic Composites Ceramic composites containing continuous fiber reinforcements must be processed by methods that accommodate the continuous nature of the reinforcement. Typically, processing involves the formation of a fiber preform that contains an interface coating applied by chemical vapor deposition or a particle -filled slurry process followed by impregnation with a second particle - filled slurry mix, preceramic polymer, precursor gases, molten metal, or other raw material that converts to a ceramic matrix when heated. The interface is a very thin layer (< 5 mm total thickness), can be multiple layers to achieve the desired result, and is applied to the individual ceramic filaments. The interface serves as protection for the fibers during matrix processing and as a source of debonding during crack propagation in the brittle ceramic matrix. Turkish Glass: Turkish Glass The glass industry is one of the most important and highly developed industries in Turkey. Historically, glass production dates back to the Seljuk Period. Substantial improvements were achieved in the 17th and 18th Centuries during the Ottoman Empire. Today, a group of companies, T. Sise ve Cam Fab. A.S., accounts for approximately 90% of annual production with its twenty manufacturing establishments and two marketing companies. Turkish glass industry has a highly intensive production technology and a vast accumulation of know-how. The high level of production capacity, good quality, wide sales services and other related activities have placed the firm second in Europe and fourth in the world. The industry has shown an increasing trend in production in recent years. The major part of production is taken up with flat glass, including both float and sheet types. The second group of items is glass containers and the third is glass household articles, including approximately 5,000 kinds of products. Apart from these, tinted and untinted glass, sand blasted glass, safety glass, enamelled glass, oven glass, glass tiles and bricks, glass tissue, laboratory equipment and the like are produced by the industry. Glass household articles constitute the main part of exports. Flat glass ranks second and glass containers group ranks third in the total exports of the industry. Turkish glass industry products are exported to about 100 countries in the world. The major destination countries are Germany, Italy, Egypt, UK, France and Greece. Turkish Ceramics: Turkish Ceramics Ceramics are amongst Turkey's oldest and best known products. The first notable ceramics from Turkish lands were the tiles and bricks covered with colored glazes made in Anatolia for architectural purposes in the 13th Century. Yet the history of Turkish ceramics can be traced back several thousand years. In the Seljuk and Ottoman Periods, ceramic art acquired new dimensions and pieces of exquisite beauty were produced. Commercial production of ceramics started in 1965 with the foundation of the first technological plant in this field. Today, there are about 30 establishments in the industry. Thirteen of them produce ceramic wall and floor tiles, eight produce sanitaryware. In the ceramic household articles sub-sector, there are 8 major companies as well as 250 small workshops engaged in production. There are three companies in this sub-sector dealing with production. There are two major companies in the technical ceramics sub-sector. The major part of production belongs to ceramic wall and floor tiles. The second important group of items in the production is sanitaryware and the third is household articles. Turkey ranks 5th in the world and 4th in Europe in the production of ceramic tiles. Turkey ranks 5th in Europe in the production of ceramic sanitaryware. Exports of the ceramic industry have been increasing steadily. Ceramic tiles constitute the major part of exports. Sanitaryware articles rank second and household articles and ornaments rank third in the total ceramics industry exports. Approximately 80% of exports are directed to EU countries. The major export countries are Germany, the United Kingdom, the USA, France and Israel. Business drivers : Business drivers Education & Training: Recruitment and Retention of people in Industry; Encourage students in studying materials and ceramic disciplines courses; Image of Manufacturing Industry. Science & Technology: New and Emerging Sectors; Product design; Process design and Development; Diversification. Research & Development: Research & Development relevance; Industry sector research budgets diminishing. Business Drivers: Business Drivers Collaboration & Communication: Links between Industry & Academia; Intellectual Property / Secrecy Agreements with individual companies funding research; Product Development. Environmental: Reduction of process emissions; Design for use, reuse, dismantling and recycling; Waste Immobilization/ encapsulation; Energy Efficiency; Climate Change; Lifecycle Analysis. Globalization: Global Market Size & Growth; Global Competitiveness; Supply chain logistics; Foreign Ownership of the Companies. Promising Products: Promising Products There are currently three very promising developments for the ceramics industry and they are: Tiles that feature special reactive glazes, which reflect simple signs and symbols in dark environments. Tiles with these characteristics could save lives in situations where emergencies exist in difficult locations, like the tunnels; Tiles with house electronic circuitry that will permit the detection of movement or temperature change. The availability of water jet cutting technology, powered by computer aided programmes permit designers to create totally unique designs that do not feature in any manufacturers portfolio. Future Trends: Future Trends The electronic field looks ahead to microminiaturization of electronic devices. Ceramic engineers will turn nonfunctional packaging parts into functional components of the device. To accomplish this, new ceramic materials will be developed along with new methods to process them. The communication industry was revolutionized with the development of fiber optics. Along with microminiaturization of components will come the incorporation of opto-electronic integrated circuits. High temperature superconductors will open the doors to magnetic levitation vehicles, cheap electricity, and improved MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). With micro-applications of superconductors through thin film tapes in sensors and memory storage devices, the use of superconductors will take-off. The automobile industry, which already incorporates a substantial amount of ceramics into a car, is looking to the field of ceramics to provide improved sensors of motion, gas compositions, electrical and thermal changes; as well as light weight, high strength and high temperature components for the engines. For the conservation of energy and environmental protection, ceramics seem to be a viable possibility in the use of ceramic fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaic cells, and fiber optic transmission of energy. Besides the ceramic applications in medical diagnostic instruments, the field of bioceramics for bone replacement and chemotherapy release capsules is here. As ceramic materials improve in terms of strength, nonreactivity, compatibility, longevity, porosity for tissue growth, and lower costs, more use of ceramic devices will be seen. Conclusion: Conclusion One of the most significant advances in ceramics during the past 20 years has been to increase fracture toughness. Increased fracture toughness was important to industry because it reduced risk of fracture during installation and service, which has always been a concern with glass and traditional ceramics. The world’s of construction and design never stand still and unless those who can determine the future of the industry take the right steps to safeguard its future. Advanced monolithic ceramics are being used throughout the industrial processing industry and have demonstrated superior performance to conventional materials at an affordable price. As user confidence continues to grow and as energy savings, increased productivity, and reduced maintenance are confirmed, the need has emerged for advanced ceramics with improved toughness. Discontinuous reinforced ceramic composites have partially filled this need, but their application is limited in both size and geometry, and their toughness is less than desired for a risk-adverse industry. Continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites are viewed as the ultimate solution with many applications rapidly becoming commercially viable.