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Published on July 13, 2014

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PowerPoint Presentation: FDI in Multi Brand Retail - Aparna Handa B.A.( Hons ) Economics 1 st year PowerPoint Presentation: The Retail Sector What is retailing? Retailing is the interface between the producer and the individual consumer, buying for personal consumption. It is the last link that connects the consumer with the manufacturing and distribution chains. #Quick take: India is the fifth largest retail market globally. Retail contributes to 10% of India’s GDP. India has highest retail density in the world with 15 million outlets. PowerPoint Presentation: India is a land of retail democracy! ORGANISED RETAIL SECTOR UNORGANISED RETAIL SECTOR Organized retailing refers to trading activities undertaken by licensed retailers, that is, those who are registered for sales tax, income tax, etc. These include the corporate-backed hypermarkets and retail chains, and also the privately owned large retail businesses. Unorganized retailing, on the other hand, refers to the traditional formats of low-cost retailing, for example, the local kirana shops, owner manned general stores, paan / beedi shops, convenience stores, hand cart and pavement vendors, etc . only 5% of the total retail share. 95% of the total retail share. PowerPoint Presentation: What (exactly) is FDI ? Foreign direct investment  ( FDI ) refers to the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. wikipedia : FDI is considered to be considered an ingredient in economic growth . FDI is an investment to acquire long-term interest in enterprises operating outside of the economy of the investor. FDI is a source of external finance which means that countries with limited amounts of capital can receive finance beyond national borders from wealthier countries. in layman’s terms: PowerPoint Presentation: Single brand retail in India -the change has arrived! Meaning: Policy before 2011: Single brand retail is one in which a single item is sold across all outlets. Such as Reebok, Titan, Puma etc. FDI up to 51 %, with prior Government approval, is allowed in retail trade of single brand products, subject to the following conditions: FDI up to 51 % would be allowed, with prior Government approval, for retail trade of Single Brand Products; Products to be sold should be of a ‘Single Brand’ only. Products should be sold under the same brand internationally. ‘Single Brand’ product-retailing would cover only products which are branded during manufacturing. PowerPoint Presentation: THE CHANGE: The Government finally has permitted 100 percent FDI in Single brand retail under the government approval route subject to certain conditions. Some of the stipulated conditions are: Products to be sold should be of a ‘Single Brand’ only.   (b) Products should be sold under the same brand internationally i.e. products should be sold under the same brand in one or more countries other than India. (c) ‘Single Brand’ product-retail trading would cover only products which are branded during manufacturing. (d) The foreign investor should be the owner of the brand.   (e) In respect of proposals involving FDI beyond 51%, mandatory sourcing of at least 30% of the value of products sold would have to be done from Indian ‘small industries/ village and cottage industries, artisans and craftsmen ’. . PowerPoint Presentation: The good news is over. The real debate begins now!! PowerPoint Presentation: Multi brand retail in India Meaning : Marketing of similar and competing products by the same firm under different and unrelated brands. For example: walmart , big bazar , tesco **FDI in multi brand retail was not permitted in India. however, the Government of India proposed some policy changes in late 2011. they are as follows.. PowerPoint Presentation: PROPOSAL AS FINALISED BY GOVERNMENT A decision has been taken by the Government to permit FDI in all products, in a calibrated manner, subject to the following conditions: FDI in Multi Brand Retail Trade (MBRT) may be permitted up to 51%, with Government approval; Fresh agricultural produce, including fruits, vegetables, flowers, grains, pulses, fresh poultry, fishery and meat products, may be unbranded. Minimum amount to be brought in, as FDI, by the foreign investor, would be US $ 100 million . At least 50% of total FDI brought in shall be invested in 'back-end infrastructure’. Ba ck-end infrastructure will include investment made towards processing, manufacturing, distribution, design improvement, quality control, packaging, logistics, storage, ware-house, agriculture market produce infrastructure etc. Expenditure on land cost and rentals, if any, will not be counted for purposes of backend infrastructure. PowerPoint Presentation: At least 30% of the procurement of manufactured/ processed products shall be sourced from Indian 'small industries ' which have a total investment in plant & machinery not exceeding US $ 1.00 million. This valuation refers to the value at the time of installation, without providing for depreciation. Further, if at any point in time, this valuation is exceeded, the industry shall not qualify as a 'small industry' for this purpose. Self-certification by the company, to ensure compliance of the condition at serial nos. (iii), (iv) and (v) above, which could be cross-checked as and when required. Accordingly, the investors to maintain accounts, duly certified by statutory auditors. Retail sales locations may be set up only in cities with a population of more than 10 lakh as per 2011 Census and may also cover an area of 10 kms around the municipal/urban agglomeration limits of such cities; retail locations will be restricted to conforming areas as per the Master/Zonal Plans of the concerned cities and provision will be made for requisite facilities such as transport connectivity and parking; Government will have the first right to procurement of agricultural products PowerPoint Presentation: FDI POLICY- OVER THE YEARS. PowerPoint Presentation: OVERCOMING CRITICS PowerPoint Presentation: #CONTROVERSY 1: Independent stores will close, leading to massive job losses. few thousand jobs may be created, but millions will be lost . Organized retail will need workers. if Walmart -like retail companies were to expand in India as much as their presence in the United States, and the staffing level in Indian stores kept at the same level as in the United States stores, Walmart alone would employ 5.6 million Indian citizens. Adjusted for this market share, the expected jobs in future Indian organized retail would total over 85 million. In addition, millions of additional jobs will be created during the building of and the maintenance of retail stores, roads, cold storage centers, software industry, electronic cash registers and other retail supporting organizations. Instead of job losses, retail reforms are likely to be massive boost to Indian job availability. PowerPoint Presentation: #CONTROVERSY 2: Walmart will lower prices to dump goods, get competition out of the way, become a monopoly, then raise prices. Walmart , Carrefour, Tesco, Metro, Coop are some of over 350 global retail companies with annual sales over $1 billion. These retail companies have operated for over 30 years in numerous countries. They have not become monopolies. Competition between Walmart -like retailers has kept food prices in check. Canada credits their very low inflation rates to Walmart -effect.   Anti-trust laws and state regulations, such as those in Indian legal code, have prevented food monopolies from forming anywhere in the world. Price inflation in these countries has been 5 to 10 times lower than price inflation in India The current consumer price inflation in Europe and the United States is less than 2%, compared to India's double digit inflation . PowerPoint Presentation: #CONTROVERSY 3: India doesn't need foreign retailers, since homegrown companies and traditional markets may be able to do the job. India needs trillions of dollar to build its infrastructure, hospitals, housing and schools for its growing population. Indian economy is small, with limited surplus capital. Indian government is already operating on budget deficits. It is simply not possible for Indian investors or Indian government to fund this expansion , job creation and growth at the rate India needs. Thus, Global investment capital through FDI is necessary. Beyond capital, Indian retail industry needs knowledge and global integration . Global retail leaders, can bring this knowledge. Global integration can potentially open export markets for Indian farmers and producers. Walmart , for example, expects to source and export some $1 billion worth of goods from India every year, since it came into Indian wholesale retail market PowerPoint Presentation: #CONTROVERSY 4: Work will be done by Indians, profits will go to foreigners. With 51% FDI limit in multi-brand retailers, nearly half of any profits will remain in India . Any profits will be subject to taxes, and such taxes will reduce Indian government budget deficit. Many years ago, China adopted the retail reform policy India has announced; China allowed FDI in its retail sector. It has taken FDI-financed retailers in China between 5 to 10 years to post profits, in large part because of huge investments they had to make initially. Like China, it is unlikely foreign retailers will earn any profits in India for the first 5 to 10 years.   Ultimately, retail companies must earn profits with hard work and by creating value. With 51% FDI limit in multi-brand retailers, nearly half of any profits will remain in India . Any profits will be subject to taxes, and such taxes will reduce Indian government budget deficit. Many years ago, China adopted the retail reform policy India has announced; China allowed FDI in its retail sector. It has taken FDI-financed retailers in China between 5 to 10 years to post profits, in large part because of huge investments they had to make initially. Like China, it is unlikely foreign retailers will earn any profits in India for the first 5 to 10 years. [22]  Ultimately, retail companies must earn profits with hard work and by creating value. PowerPoint Presentation: #CONTROVERSY 5: Remember East India Company. It entered India as a trader and then took over politically. Comparing 21st century to 18th century is inappropriate. Conditions today are not same as in the 18th century. India wasn't a democracy then, it is today. Global awareness and news media were not the same in 18th century as today. Consider China today. It has over 57 million square feet of retail space owned by foreigners, employing millions of Chinese citizens. Yet, China hasn't become a vassal of imperialists. It enjoys respect from all global powers. Other Asian countries like Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and Indonesia see foreign retailers as catalysts of new technology and price reduction; and they have benefitted immensely by welcoming FDI in retail. I ndia too will benefit by connecting with the world, rather than isolating itself . PowerPoint Presentation: #CONTROVERSY 6: Smaller states will not be able to handle. States have a right to say no to retail FDI within their jurisdiction.  States have the right to add restrictions to the retail policy announced before they implement them. Thus, they can place limits on number, market share, style, diversity, homogeneity and other factors to suit their cultural preferences. Finally, in future, states can always introduce regulations and India can change the law to ensure the benefits of retail reforms reach the poorest and weakest segments of Indian society. PowerPoint Presentation: FDI in Multi Brand Retail: A WIN WIN MOVE # more benefits.. PowerPoint Presentation: #Benefit 1 Better infrastructure will wipe out inefficiencies of our distribution systems. Due to i nbuilt inefficiencies and wastage in distribution and storage about 40% of food production doesn't reach consumers. 50 million children in India are malnourished. Food often rots at farms, in transit, or in antiquated state-run warehouses. Cost-conscious organized retail companies will avoid waste and loss, making food available to the weakest and poorest segment of Indian society, while increasing the income of small farmers. PowerPoint Presentation: #Benefit 2 Prevent labour exploitation Indian small shops employ workers without proper contracts, making them work long hours. Many unorganized small shops depend on child labour . A well-regulated retail sector will help curtail some of these abuses. They will get better working conditions, better wages. PowerPoint Presentation: #Benefit 3 NO! It will not eat up the unorganized retail market. It has been long debated that the unorganized retail players will be the worst hit. I’ll give u reasons against. The unorganized retail market is as large as 95%. also the traditional market is very deep rooted in our economy. “ The kirana stores always have their place in the map; all because they have a space. They don’t survive because of the scale but for their location PowerPoint Presentation: #Benefit 4 It will curb inflation. FDI in retail sector will transform the way perishable agricultural produce is acquired, stored, preserved, and marketed -- and thus help control India's persistent food inflation. The gap between farm gate prices of agricultural produce and the retail prices (in India) are amongst the highest in the world as also amongst the emerging markets   a farmer can be approached by retailer, processor, etc., directly and not through intermediaries, which alone will help bring down prices by 25%. Today this is not allowed. PowerPoint Presentation: According to Basu , FDI in retail will also lead to other beneficial effects: Capital inflows into retail will improve the quality of overseas money used to bridge the current account deficit , the gap between imports and exports of goods and services. Also, as international retailers begin sourcing in India, eventually they could help some small producers export some of their produce and ease the pressure on the current account, he said. Kaushik Basu speaks: PowerPoint Presentation: Wrap up: The Final Stance “We will look at any partnership that could help us become more competitive. But we are unwilling to give a majority stake to any partner.” -senior executive, spencer’s retail chain. PowerPoint Presentation: To be prosperous in a time of unprecedented demographic expansion, India must be willing to change, and all change involves both winners and losers. In the case of foreign participation in retail, the winners will dramatically outnumber the losers !

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