theory of every thing1

Information about theory of every thing1

Published on July 18, 2014

Author: bhagatsinghsonay

Source: authorstream.com

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PowerPoint Presentation: Study of Photon Beam and its application in Radiology and para -biomedical A Handbook for Teachers and Students by Dr. Bhagatsingh Sonaye Let your light shine. Shine within you so that it can shine on someone else. Let your light shine. PowerPoint Presentation: T heories regarding the nature of light Light has been characterized by six major theories over the past 3,000 years. The six theories are known as: 1. The tactile theory 2. The emission theory 3. The corpuscular theory 4. The wave theory 5. The electromagnetic theory 6. The quantum theory PowerPoint Presentation: What is a theory? PowerPoint Presentation: A hypothesis is an educated guess, based on observation. Usually, a hypothesis can be supported or refuted through experimentation or more observation. A hypothesis can be disproven, but not proven to be true. Basically, if evidence accumulates to support a hypothesis, then the hypothesis can become accepted as a good explanation of a phenomenon. Example: If you see no difference in the cleaning ability of various laundry detergents, you might hypothesize that cleaning effectiveness is not affected by which detergent you use. You can see this hypothesis can be disproven if a stain is removed by one detergent and not another. On the other hand, you cannot prove the hypothesis. Even if you never see a difference in the cleanliness of your clothes after trying a thousand detergents, there might be one you haven't tried that could be different. PowerPoint Presentation: A theory is valid as long as there is no evidence to dispute it. Therefore, theories can be disproven. One definition of a theory is to say it's an accepted hypothesis. Example: It is known that on June 30, 1908 in Tunguska, Siberia, there was an explosion equivalent to the detonation of about 15 million tons of TNT. Many hypotheses have been proposed for what caused the explosion. It is theorized that the explosion was caused by a natural extraterrestrial phenomenon, and was not caused by man. A law generalizes a body of observations. At the time it is made, no exceptions have been found to a law. Scientific laws explain things, but they do not describe them. One way to tell a law and a theory apart is to ask if the description gives you a means to explain 'why'. Example: Consider Newton's Law of Gravity. Newton could use this law to predict the behavior of a dropped object, but he couldn't explain why it happened. PowerPoint Presentation: What is light? PowerPoint Presentation: Light or visible light Is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye , and is responsible for the sense of sight . PowerPoint Presentation: Visible light has wavelength in a range from about 380 nanometers to about 740 nm, with a frequency range of about 405 THz to 790 THz. In physics , the term light sometimes refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not. PowerPoint Presentation: What are the theories regarding the nature of light? PowerPoint Presentation: The tactile theory was based on the ability to touch. The theory stated that the eye sent out invisible probes to "feel" objects. The emissions theory, however, was the opposite of the tactile theory. The emissions theory stated that bright objects sent out beams or particles that would ricochet off objects and enter the eye. The emission theory became generally accepted over the tactile theory by the eleventh century. PowerPoint Presentation: held that light was a mechanical property of the luminous body. René Descartes (1596–1650) In 1637 he published a theory of the refraction of light that assumed, incorrectly, that light travelled faster in a denser medium than in a less dense medium. Descartes arrived at this conclusion by analogy with the behavior of sound waves. Although Descartes was incorrect about the relative speeds, he was correct in assuming that light behaved like a wave and in concluding that refraction could be explained by the speed of light in different media. Descartes is not the first to use the mechanical analogies but because he clearly asserts that light is only a mechanical property of the luminous body and the transmitting medium, Descartes' theory of light is regarded as the start of modern physical optics. PowerPoint Presentation: an atomist, proposed a particle theory of light which was published posthumously in the 1660s. Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655), Isaac Newton studied Gassendi's work at an early age, and preferred his view to Descartes' theory of the plenum . He stated in his Hypothesis of Light of 1675 that light was composed of corpuscles (particles of matter) which were emitted in all directions from a source. PowerPoint Presentation: Corpuscular theory -light consist of tiny particles that travel in straight lines through space. Sir Isaac Newton called these particles corpuscles. PowerPoint Presentation: Simple method Of dispersion of light One of Newton's arguments against the wave nature of light was that waves were known to bend around obstacles, while light travelled only in straight lines. He did, however, explain the phenomenon of the diffraction of light (which had been observed by Francesco Grimaldi ) by allowing that a light particle could create a localised wave in the aether . His reputation helped the particle theory of light to hold sway during the 18th century. PowerPoint Presentation: Newton’s corpuscular theory of light is based on the following points 1. Light consists of very tiny particles known as “corpuscular”. 2. These corpuscles on emission from the source of light travel in straight line with high velocity 3. When these particles enter the eyes, they produce image of the object or sensation of vision. 4. Corpuscles of different colours have different sizes. Pierre-Simon Laplace : Pierre-Simon Laplace The particle theory of light led Laplace to argue that a body could be so massive that light could not escape from it. In other words it would become what is now called a black hole . Laplace withdrew his suggestion when the wave theory of light was firmly established. PowerPoint Presentation: Robert Hooke,    (born July 18, 1635, — March 3, 1703,)  In 1672 he discovered the phenomenon of diffraction (the bending of light rays around corners); to explain it, he offered the wave theory of light. PowerPoint Presentation: In 1678, Dutch physicist,   Christiaan Huygens, believed that light was made up of waves vibrating up and down perpendicular to the direction of  the light travels, and therefore formulated a way of visualizing wave propagation. This became known as ' Huygens' Principle' .  PowerPoint Presentation: According to huygen’s wave theory: 1. Each point in a source of light sends out waves in all directions in hypothetical medium called "ETHER". 2. Light is a form of energy 3. Light travels in the form of waves. 4. A medium is necessary for the propagation of waves & the whole space is filled with an imaginary medium called Ether 5. Light waves have very short wave length Hypothetical Foundation of wave theory PowerPoint Presentation: Augustin Fresnel (1788-1827) elaborated on Huygens' Principle by stating that the amplitude of the wave at any given point equals the superposition of the amplitudes of all the secondary wavelets at that point (with the understanding that the wavelets have the same frequency as the original wave).  Thomas Young (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was an English polymath . He is famous for having partly deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphics He was admired by, among others, Herschel and Einstein . In Young's own judgment, of his many achievements the most important was to establish the wave theory of light . To do so, he had to overcome the century-old view, expressed in the venerable Isaac Newton's "Optics", that light is a particle. Nevertheless, in the early 19th century Young put forth a number of theoretical reasons supporting the wave theory of light, and he developed two enduring demonstrations to support this viewpoint PowerPoint Presentation: was an English polymath . He is famous for having partly deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphics He was admired by, among others, Herschel and Einstein . In Young's own judgment, of his many achievements the most important was to establish the wave theory of light . To do so, he had to overcome the century-old view, expressed in the venerable Isaac Newton's "Optics", that light is a particle. Nevertheless, in the early 19th century Young put forth a number of theoretical reasons supporting the wave theory of light, and he developed two enduring demonstrations to support this viewpoint Thomas Young (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) With the ripple tank he demonstrated the idea of interference in the context of water waves. With the Young's interference experiment , or double-slit experiment , he demonstrated interference in the context of light as a wave. PowerPoint Presentation: James Clerck Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) At the end of the nineteenth century, James Clerk Maxwell combined electricity, magnetism and light into one theory. He called his theory the electromagnetic theory. According to Maxwell, light was an electromagnetic wave. Because light was an electromagnetic wave, light carried the same properties as the other electromagnetic waves. Maxwell was able to predict the speed of light by using electrical and magnetic constants. His calculations proved to be very close to the accepted value.  o is the electric permittivity of free space μ o is the magnetic permeability of free space 1873 – Proposed that light is an electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic wave – Has an electric field component and a magnetic field component with the same wavelength and frequency, but travels in perpendicular planes. PowerPoint Presentation: -James Clark Maxwell explains that light is the result of the oscillations of the electrically charged particles of the atom. Generating EM Waves: Generating EM Waves Two straight wires connected to the terminals of an AC generator can create an electromagnetic wave . Only the electric wave traveling to the right is shown here. As the electrons are moved to one end of the wire, an electric field is created. As the electrons move back, the field disappears. The field propagates outward radially Like the ripples formed by dropping a pebble in a pond PowerPoint Presentation: WAVES AND OPTICS Physical optics Dispersion of light and the electromagnetic spectrum Students should understand dispersion and the electromagnetic spectrum, so they can: Know the names associated with electromagnetic radiation and be able to arrange in order of increasing wavelength the following: visible light of various colors, ultraviolet light, infrared light, radio waves, x-rays, and gamma rays Infra Red IR UV PowerPoint Presentation: The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves The Electromagnetic Spectrum The Speed of Light The Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves (AP?) The Doppler Effect and Electromagnetic Waves Polarization Electromagnetic Waves EM Wave Propagation: The speed of an electromagnetic wave in a vacuum is: EM Wave Propagation Generating EM Waves: Generating EM Waves As the electrons are moving, a magnetic field is also generated. The direction of the magnetic field is predicted by the right hand rule. Since the maximum field is when the electrons are moving the fastest The maximum field occurs when the electric field is at a minimum. The magnetic field also propagates away from the wire. Process occurs any time an electron is accelerated EM Wave Reception: A radio wave can be detected with a receiving antenna wire that is parallel to the electric field. EM Wave Reception PowerPoint Presentation: Max Planck Formulates Quantum Theory (1900):  For several decades, physicists had been trying to understand the surprising results they continued to get from heating black bodies (a surface that absorbs all frequencies of light that hits it). Try as they might, scientists could not explain the results using classical physics. In 1900, German theoretical physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) discovered an equation that explained the results of these tests. The equation is E= Nhf , with E=energy, N=integer, h=constant, f=frequency. In determining this equation, Planck came up with the constant (h), which is now known as "Planck's constant." The really amazing part of Planck's discovery was that energy, which appears to be emitted in wavelengths, is actually discharged in small packets (quanta). This new theory of energy revolutionized physics and opened the way for Albert Einstein's theory of relativity. PowerPoint Presentation: Failure of Classical Physics Throwing all of this together (i.e. energy density is standing waves per volume times energy per standing wave), we get: u ( λ ) = (8 π  /  λ 4 )  kT R ( λ ) = (8 π  /  λ 4 )  kT  ( c  / 4) (known as the  Rayleigh-Jeans formula ) Graph of Wavelength vs. Radiancy in blackbody radiation. Rayleigh-Jeans formula fails horribly to predict the actual results of the experiments. Notice that the radiancy in this equation is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength, which indicates that at short wavelength (i.e. near 0), the radiancy will approach infinity. (The Rayleigh-Jeans formula is the purple curve in the graph to the right.) Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German physicist who discovered quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918: Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck , (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German physicist who discovered quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of quantum theory , for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918

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