title abstract background significance

Information about title abstract background significance

Published on October 29, 2007

Author: Charlie

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Title, Abstract, Background and Significance:  Title, Abstract, Background and Significance Bruce Pitt Department Environmental and Occupational Health University Pittsburgh Graduate School Public Health [email protected] Slide2:  Survival Skills & Ethics Program www.survival.pitt.edu Beth Fisher and Mike Zigmund Outline, Write, and Edit:  Outline, Write, and Edit Remember to think like a reviewer:  Remember to think like a reviewer TITLE:  TITLE CONFORM: 81 characters new - different title competing or revised - same title ACCURATE statement of longterm goals INCLUDE keywords Application PHS Grant 09/04 TITLE (FAQs):  TITLE (FAQs) What if I don’t conform? How does my title affect my assignment? What makes a good title? TITLE (example):  TITLE (example) Physiology of the pulmonary circulation Nitric oxide and pulmonary hypertension Pharmacology of sodium nitrite for pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease TITLE (example):  TITLE (example) Host defense and lung biology Macrophages and fungal infection of lung Dectin-1, alveolar macrophages and Immunity Against Pneumocystis Carinii in Mice ABSTRACT:  ABSTRACT Purpose: succinctly describe entire proposal Implications: a) grant referral process (initial study section and institute assignments) b) significant source of information for study section members not assigned c) source reviewer assignment ABSTRACT :  ABSTRACT Half-page (confined to designated space) Condensed modified version specific aims: Essence of specific aims (exactly same wording from section A for aims) Few sentences on health relatedness Significance in terms of long term goals. www.whitaker.org/sanders/html ABSTRACT - SUGGESTIONS:  ABSTRACT - SUGGESTIONS Modify specific aims (Section A) and write abstract last Use entire space allotted and be complete Consider impact of dispersal of abstract: annual reports and website readily accessed by colleagues, administrators and lay public Slide13:  Magnesium (Mg) deficiency may play an important role in pathogenesis of enhanced vascular reactivity in hypertension. The overall hypothesis to be evaluated is that Mg deficiency caused by glucose intolerance, insulin resistance or other factors in hypertensives leads to increased vasomotor tone via altered release of vasoactive cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid and enhanced angiotensin II (AII) action. To evaluate the effects of Mg deficiency in normal subjects, we will induce the condition by administration of a low Mg diet. Vascular and adrenal sensitivity to AII, platelet aggregation and eicosanoid levels will be studied prior to and after Mg deficiency is established. Since evidence suggests Mg deficiency can modulate insulin action, the effect of this deficiency on glucose tolerance will also be studied. In another project the effect of insulin on intracellular Mg levels will be studied using a new fura 2 Mg dye technique. These studies will be performed in groups of subjects with varied blood pressure and insulin levels. Also the effects of acute intravenous and chronic oral Mg loading on the above parameters will be studied in similar subject groups. We will directly study the effect of Mg on AII, insulin and insulin like growth factor action in isolated and cultured adrenal glomerulosa cells. Concentration of Mg will be varied and signal transduction and steroidogenic effects will be evaluate. These studies will provide insight into mechamisms important to the pathogenesis of altered vascular reactivity of subjects with hypertension or hyperinsulinemia. Slide14:  Magnesium (Mg) deficiency may play an important role in pathogenesis of enhanced vascular reactivity in hypertension. The overall HYPOTHESIS to be evaluated is that Mg deficiency caused by glucose intolerance, insulin resistance or other factors in hypertensives leads to increased vasomotor tone via altered release of vasoactive cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid and enhanced angiotensin II (AII) action. Specific Aims: (1) Determine the effects of low Mg on vascular and adrenal sensitivity to AII ( platelet aggregation and eicosanoid levels, glucose tolerance); (2) determine the effect of insulin on intraceullar Mg levels (fura 2 Mg dye technique). These studies will be performed in groups of subjects with varied blood pressure and insulin levels; (3) determine the effect of acute i.v. and chronic oral Mg loading on the above parameters; (4) determine the signal transduction and steroidogenic effects of Mg and AII, insulin and insulin-like growth factor action in isolated and cultured adrenal glomerulosa cells. Significance: These studies will provide insight into mechamisms important to the pathogenesis of altered vascular reactivity of subjects with hypertension or hyperinsulinemia. ABSTRACT CHECKLIST:  ABSTRACT CHECKLIST Stay within space with understandable language State hypothesis, specific aims, significance Importance, innovativeness Exclude confidential, proprietary info www.niaid.nih.gov/ncn/grants/charts/checklists.htm B. Background & Significance:  literature review rationale for project state of the field B. Background & Significance be selective deal w/ contradictions include own work include reviewer’s work cite sources in text: …was effective (Jones & Smith, 1996) in biblio: Jones R, Smith M (1996) Effect of stress on ethical behavior, Ethics, 3: 23-47. B. Background & Significance:  literature review rationale for project state of the field your proposal innovation contribution to field B. Background & Significance build enthusiasm BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE - PURPOSE:  BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE - PURPOSE 3 page opportunity to demonstrate scholarship by concisely a) stating problem to be investigated and rationale for proposal b) placing proposal within current state of knowledge – not literature review c) summarizing potential new information to be gleaned BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE -CONTENT:  BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE -CONTENT Combination of literature citations, referral to own work and thoughtful schema cover: rationale for proposal state of existing knowledge gaps that project will fill BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE - SUGGESTIONS:  BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE - SUGGESTIONS Make compelling case (importance of topic and research questions, qualifications of investigators) Establish familiarity and authority in field Citations (contemporary, correct) Stress innovations, new technologies and impact on related fields of research BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE - SUGGESTIONS:  BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE - SUGGESTIONS Critical analysis of work of others – not negative but rather scholarly recognition of contributions of other scientists whose work yours builds on Gaps in our understanding: explicitly state what information is missing and how your work will address these issues Emphasize significance of proposal: assume all reviewers agree on importance of general problem and thus focus on impact of your research on issue in question. General organization:  General organization use headings frequently General organization:  General organization write in paragraphs 1 major idea per paragraph topic sentences initial paragraphs of section most important General organization:  General organization make it easy to find key points bold face cross reference some redundancy Appearance:  Appearance Appearance:  Appearance select good type face Appearance:  Appearance select good type face good Times Roman Century Schoolbook Appearance:  Appearance select good type face good avoid! Times Roman courier Century Schoolbook Appearance:  Appearance select good type face good avoid! Times Roman courier Century Schoolbook size > 11 pt (recommend 11.5) Appearance:  Appearance let your text indent paragraphs skip line between paragraphs Background Significance - Checklist:  Background Significance - Checklist Written clearly and nontechnically? Show how research innovative Why worth funding How increase knowledge Include background information Literature reveal understanding Gaps, discrepancies or roadblocks in field Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements Ogden & Goldberg Research Proposals: A Guide to Success Miner & Griffith Proposal Planning & Writing many Program Officers Slide35:  staff Beth Fischer Michael Zigmond Mary DiBernardo Maureen Geary support University of Pittsburgh NSF NIH Survival Skills & Ethics Program www.survival.pitt.edu Sample review criteria:  Sample review criteria REFERENCES:  REFERENCES Bauer DG. The “How To” Grants Manual: Successful Grantseeking Techniques for Obtaining Public and Private Grants. 3rd edition. Phoenix: Oryx Press. 1995. Bowman JP & Branchaw BP. How to Write Proposals That Produce. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1992. Brown LG. Demystifying Grantseeking: What you Really Need to Do To Get Grants. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Browning B. Grant Writing for Dummies. IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., 2001. Burke J. I’ll Grant You That: A Step-by-Step Guide to Finding Funds, Designing Winning Projects, and Writing Powerful Grant Proposals. Portsmouth, NH: Heinman, 2000 Carlson M. Winning Grants Step By Step: Support Centers of America’s Complete Workbook for Planning, Developing, and Writing Successful Proposals. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995. Carter New C & Quick JA. Grantseeker’s Toolkit: A Comprehensive Guide to Finding Funding. NY: Wiley, 1998. Coley SM & Scheinberg CA. Proposal Writing. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990. REFERENCES (CONT):  REFERENCES (CONT) Davitz JR Davitz LL. Evaluating Research Proposals: A Guide for the Behavioral Sciences. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. Ferguson J Drake-Major L Gershowitz MV. The Grantseeker’s Answerbook: Fundraising Experts Respond to the Most Commonly Asked Questions, 2nd edition. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Pubs, 1999. Golden SL. Secrets of Successful Grantsmanship: A Guerrilla Guide to Raising Money. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1997. Illes J. The Strategic Grant-Seeker: Conceptualizing Fundable Research in the Brain and Behavioral Sciences. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999. Locke LF, Spirduso W, Silverman SJ. Proposals that Work. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1993. Miner LE & Griffith J. Proposal Planning & Writing. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1993. Ogden TE & Goldberg IA. Research Proposals: A Guide to Success, 3rd ed. NY: Academic Press, 2002. REFERENCES (CONT):  REFERENCES (CONT) Quick JA. Grant Seeker’s Budget Toolkit. New York: John Wiley, 2001. Reif-Lehrer L. Grant Application Writer’s Handbook. Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 1995. Ries JB and Leukefeld CG. The Research Funding Guidebook: Getting It, Managing It & Renewing It. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1998. @ Websites on grants Community of Science: www.cos.com Foundation Center: http://fdncenter.org/grantmaker GrantsNet: www.hhs.gov/grantsnet The Grantsmanship Center: www.tgci.com Internet Resources for Nonprofits: www.ai.mit.edu/people/ellens/Non/online National Institutes of Health: www.nih.gov National Science Foundation: www.nsf.gov NIAID “All About Grants” Tutorial: www.niaid.nih.gov/ncn/grants U.S. Nonprofit Gateway: www.nonprofit.gov ScienceWise.com: www.sciencewise.com Society of Research Administrators: www.srainternational.org

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