Tone Meng Overview on Tones

Information about Tone Meng Overview on Tones

Published on January 24, 2008

Author: Michelino

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Quick Overview on Tones:  Quick Overview on Tones Helen Meng The Chinese University of Hong Kong Mandarin Tone System:  Mandarin Tone System 4 tones + 1 ‘light’ tone Cantonese Tone System:  Cantonese Tone System 6 non-entering and 3 entering tones Phonetic Transcription Schemes:  Phonetic Transcription Schemes Chinese character sets (“scripts”): simplified, traditional Pronunciation of a character = tonal syllable = syllable + tone Different syllable inventory for different dialects, e.g. Mandarin (official), Cantonese (major dialect)… syllable in Roman alphabets tone as a one-digit Arabic number Popular schemes are pinyin (for Mandarin) 銀行 (bank): /yin2 hang2/ jyutping (for Cantonese) 銀行 (bank): /ngan4 hong4/ <tone> element:  <tone> element Proposed <tone> Element:  Proposed <tone> Element Tone Vary with meaning, context and speaking style 相 in tone 2 means photo in tone 3 means facial appearance / minister Current SSML 1.0: phoneme Requires pronunciation transcription Example <phoneme alphabet="x-lshk-jyutping" ph="soeng2">相</phoneme> <phoneme alphabet="x-lshk-jyutping" ph="soeng3">相</phoneme> Proposed <tone> element with the required “value” attribute <tone value="2">相</tone> (photo) <tone value="3">相</tone> (face appearance) inherit the alphabet attribute, or explicitly specify Examples of Using “tone” Element:  Examples of Using “tone” Element Tone changes with meaning 糖 (candy / sugar) <tone value="2">糖</tone> (tone 2 /tong2/: means candy) <tone value="4">糖</tone> (tone 4 /tong4/: means sugar) Tone changes with context 爺 (grandfather) 阿<tone value="4">爺</tone> (tone 4 /je4/: preceded by 阿) 爺<tone value="2">爺</tone> (tone 2 /je2/: preceded by 爺) Tone changes with speaking style: 英文 (English) 英<tone value=“4">文</tone> (tone 4 /man4/: formal, read) 英<tone value="2">文</tone> (tone 2 /man2/: colloquial) Tone Sandhi (Rules) :  Tone Sandhi (Rules) For Mandarin: Tone3 Tone3  Tone2 Tone3 Etc. For Cantonese: Tone4 Tone4  Tone4 Tone2 OR Tone4 Tone4  Tone4 Tone1 Tone4 Tone4 (no change) Etc. END:  END

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