Published on March 27, 2008
Topic 1:Introduction to Globalization Studies: Topic 1: Introduction to Globalization Studies Concepts and Theories Themes:: Themes: What is Globalization? How can we conceptualize globalization? What are the distinctive processes of globalization? Key Concepts of Globalization: Key Concepts of Globalization Postmodernism（後現代主義） was the concept of the 1980s, while globalization was the concept of the 1990s and the new millennium. David Harvey: the word “Globalization” was first used in mid 70s by American Express. Key Concepts of Globalization: Key Concepts of Globalization The term then spread out quickly in the financial and business press. It replaces the term “internationalization”（國際化）and “transnationalization“ (跨國化). Caution! They are different concepts! Internationalization:: Internationalization: increasing interwovenness （相互交織）of national economies through international trade. – nation state（民族國家） Key concept to remember! Transnationalization:: Transnationalization: the increasing organization of production on a cross-border basis by multinational organizations. – crossing nation-states Key concept to remember! Globalization:: Globalization: Nation-state is no longer important. Globalization is not equal with the geographical integration of national economies, but making of new spatial scales. Globalization: Globalization Definition 1: Today’s global Economy is genuinely borderless. Information, capital and innovation flow all over the world at top speed, enabled by technology and fueled by desires for access to the best and least expensive products Kenichi Ohmae (1995) Index of globalization: http://www.kof.ch/globalization Globalization: Globalization Definition 2: What is new today is the degree and intensity with which the world is being tied together into a single globalized marketplace and village. What is also new is the sheer number of people and countries able to partake of today’s globalized economy and information networks, and to be affected by them… The new era of globalization.. Is turbo charged Jonathan Friedman 1999 Globalization: Globalization There will be no national products or technologies, no national corporations, no national industries… As almost every factor of production – Money, technology, factories, and equipment – moves effortlessly across borders, the very idea of an American economy is becoming meaningless… Robert Reich 1991 Globalization: Globalization We do not have a fully globalized economy, we do have an international economy and national policy responses to it. Paul Hirst and Graeme Thompson 1999. Globalization: Globalization What happen in a local area is not only closely related to the outside world, but intensively affected each other. Globalization: Globalization This is a dialectical process (辯證過程) because such local happenings may move in an obverse direction from the very distanciated relations that shape them. Slide14: It allows the emergence of "imagined" communities, cultures and even systems of authority and social control that cross borders. Globalization: Globalization:: Globalization: Elements of globalization: transborder capital, labor, management, news, images, and data flows. Globalization:: Globalization: The most common features: the transnationality of production, commerce, consumption, socio-cultural reproduction （社會及文化的再生產）, and politics. Globalization:: Globalization: Other features: increased instability of market; organizational decentralization of firms, flexibility of production (彈性生產); privatization (私有化) of public finance; and increased social inequality and social exclusion (社會排斥). Globalization: Globalization Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa. Key concept to remember! Anthony Giddens Famous person! Please remember him! Measuring Globalization: Measuring Globalization A.T. Kearney/ Foreign Policy Magazine Globalization Index The index quantifies economic integration by combining data on trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio capital flows and income payment, etc Charts personal contact via levels of international travel and tourism Gauges technological connectedness by counting internet users host and secure servers Accesses political engagement by taking stock of the no of international organizations But what left? These indicators only scratch the surface of globalization’s complexity as many other aspects of global integration defy measurement Key Concepts: Key Concepts Synchronization Real-time simultaneity Time-space compression/ distantiation Global Consciousness Space of Flows Networks of Cities Time and Space: what Bothers?: Time and Space: what Bothers? Think of the following: Your grandfather traveled 10 miles away in his village to the village market nearby during his life in the Qing Dynasty You father, however, traveled by ship to San Francisco and Melbourne, usually 1 to 2 months in the sea, for coolie labour. You and your son traveled in flight, around 11- 13 hours to Europe, and 17-19 hours to the United States, to work and to study abroad. Time and Space: what Bothers?: Time and Space: what Bothers? Our organizations of real-time simultaneity relies upon an advancement of time-space set in more than 2 centuries ago – the Greenwich Mean Time and the zero latitude across the Greenwich Observatory, South London. The standardization of GMT regulates our globalizing activities Travels and scheduling Local times become globalized Real-time simultaneous activities made possible, media coverage, stock buy-and-sale Speedy information transfer Time/ Space Distantiation: Time/ Space Distantiation Anthony Giddens: Local transformation is as much a part of globalization as the lateral extension (橫向擴張) of social connections across time and space. Anthony Giddens: Time /space distantiation (時空遠距化) Key concept to remember! Time-space Distantiation: Time-space Distantiation Giddens explicates that, in the age of trans-border media, communication goes beyond a person’s exact location, and physical distances in communication become less important. Giddens hence in the locations of communication furthers this distantiation as an “disembedding mechanism”, and time-space are restructured in real-time simultaneity. For instance, Giddens was committed to this idea as he lectured in the air of BBC – the John Reith’s lectures in 1999, and travel around the globe in Bombay, Hong Kong, and Washington. Time/ Space Compression: Time/ Space Compression The most important concept suggested by David Harvey: time/space compression (時空壓縮). Key concept to remember! David Harvey Famous person! Please remember him! Time-space Compression: Time-space Compression Time-space compression is a term used to describe processes that seem to accelerate the experience of time and reduce the significance of distance during a given historical moment. Geographer David Harvey used the term in The Condition of Postmodernity, where it refers to "processes that . . . revolutionize the objective qualities of space and time" (240). Time-space Compression: Time-space Compression Time-space compression often refers to technologies that seem to accelerate or elide spatial and temporal distances, including technologies of communication (telegraph, telephones, fax machines, Internet), travel (rail, cars, trains, jets) and economics (the need to overcome spatial barriers, open up new markets, speed up production cycles, and reduce the turn-over time of capital). A Comparison: A Comparison Globalization:: Globalization: Roland Robertson: new experience as “global consciousness” (全球意識). Globalization:: Globalization: The shrinking of the world to a “global village” (地球村)- a virtual disappearance of space through time. Today people can have social relations and even organized community relations regardless of space. Globalization: Globalization Manuel Castells: a new age of “network society” (網絡社會) or “global informational society” (全球信息社會). Famous person! Please remember him! Manuel Castells Space of Flows: Space of Flows Manuel Castells reveals another process – the space of flows – that regional interconnections of social organizations are restructured in a network of information infra-structures and transport networks that facilitate the flows of information, credit, goods and people, as a result of synchronization of time in different locations and real-time simultaneity of intensified economic activities. Taking the Pearl River for instance: Epidemic warning systems between Guangzhou and Hong Kong Air pollution monitoring systems between HK and PRD Intra-firm information flows of orders and delivery with the management head quarters in HK and factories in PRD Space of Flows: Space of Flows In a nutshell, “[t]he space of flows is the material organization of time-sharing social practices that work through flows [money, information goods, people, etc] The first layer – a circuit of electronic exchange The second layer – nodes & hubs in districts and regions in which the circuit of electronic exchange is installed. The third layer – the managerial elites and spatial organizations that steer at economic activities in the nodes & hubs with high value-added informated labour and low value-added, flexible generic labour – a network of inter-personal exchanges, meetings and negotiations Networks of Cities: A Problem of Definitions: Networks of Cities: A Problem of Definitions Cities become bigger and bigger as in late 90s’, 20 to 30 million people in the world moving to cities from towns and rural areas. Megacities are the inter-connections of several city establishments coming close to an agglomeration in terms of financial, production and political partnership. Therefore, there is a question whether we define the economic or social significance in terms of inhabitants’ population or influence of global activities. World’s largest urban agglomerations: World’s largest urban agglomerations Ranks of World Cities: Ranks of World Cities A. ALPHA WORLD CITIES (full service world cities) 12: London, New York, Paris, Tokyo 10: Chicago, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Milan, Singapore B. BETA WORLD CITIES (major world cities) 9: San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto, Zurich 8: Brussels, Madrid, Mexico City, Sao Paulo 7: Moscow, Seoul C. GAMMA WORLD CITIES (minor world cities) 6: Amsterdam, Boston, Caracas, Dallas, Düsseldorf, Geneva, Houston, Jakarta, Johannesburg, Melbourne, Osaka, Prague, Santiago, Taipei, Washington 5: Bangkok, Beijing, Montreal, Rome, Stockholm, Warsaw 4: Atlanta, Barcelona, Berlin, Budapest, Buenos Aires, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Istanbul, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Miami, Minneapolis, Munich, Shanghai Source: Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC), based primarily at Loughborough University England. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/citylist.html World Cities: Criteria of Measurements: World Cities: Criteria of Measurements International, first-name familiarity (one would say "Paris", not "Paris, France"). Active influence and participation in international events and world affairs (for example, New York City is home to the United Nations headquarters). A fairly large population (the center of a metropolitan area with a population of at least one million, typically several million). A major international airport (for example, London Heathrow Airport) that serves as an established hub for several international airlines. An advanced transportation system that includes several freeways and/or a large mass transit network offering multiple modes of transportation (rapid transit, light rail, regional rail, ferry, or bus). Singapore In the West, several international cultures and communities (such as a Chinatown, a Little Italy, or other immigrant communities). In other parts of the world, such as Asia, cities which attract large foreign businesses and related expatriate communities, for example Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Moscow. International financial institutions, law firms, corporate headquarters (especially conglomerates), and stock exchanges that have influence over the world economy. Advanced communications infrastructure that modern trans-national corporations rely on, such as fiberoptics, Wi-Fi networks, cellular phone services, and other high-speed lines of communications. World-renowned cultural institutions, such as museums and universities. A lively cultural scene, including film festivals, premieres, a thriving music or theatre scene; an orchestra, an opera company, art galleries, and street performers. Several powerful and influential media outlets with an international reach, such as the BBC, The New York Times, Le Monde, Agence France-Presse, and Reuters. A strong sporting community, including major sports facilities, home teams in major league sports, and the ability and historical experience to host international sporting events such as the Olympic Games, Football World Cup or Grand Slam tennis events. Dimensions of Globalization: Dimensions of Globalization Economic Globalization – trade and trans-border regulating organizations like WTO, state actors and financial institutions like IMF, Federal Reserve etc. Global Brands and Multinational Corporations Dimensions of Globalization: Dimensions of Globalization Political Globalization - the intervention of supra-state organizations (UN) and international non-government organizations (Oxfam) in international cooperation and mitigation of conflicts with resolutions. Dimensions of Globalization: Dimensions of Globalization Cultural Globalization – the advent of Internet and other communication technologies that get local boundaries and local cultures connected, and intensify the inter-connectivity within cultures to more hybrid forms of organizations, diffusions, and invented cultural mixes. Issues of Globalization: Issues of Globalization Humanistic Concern: the problem we face in the global divide: poverty, labour exploitation, and digital divide, with a recognition of cultural difference, human rights and social justice. Issues of Globalization: Issues of Globalization Institutional reflexivity: the cooperation and conflicts with mushrooming international (governmental or non-governmental organization) to address new challenges of global issues, eg. The German government made use of Green Peace in protests of the Shell polluting mining in the North Sea, and banned the Shell to participate in the road-system tender in Germany. Issues of Globalization: Issues of Globalization Historical/Structural consequences bring our focus on winner and losers, eg. the U.S. interest in oil and 9.11., George Soros and the East Asian Financial Crisis in 1998. Issues of Globalization: Issues of Globalization A Division of Academic Labour Historical/Structural Issues: Political Scientist, Economist, eg. Joseph Stiglitz, earlier Ronald Robertson, David Harvey, etc. Institutional Analysis: Sociologist, e.g. Manuel Castells, Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens, David Held etc. Cultural Analysis in Cultural Studies, or postcolonial studies, e.g. Arjun Appardurai, later Ronald Robertson, Jonathan Friedman, Arif Dirlik, etc. Timeline of Globalization: Timeline of Globalization B.C. tradesmen, the Silk Road 14c. A.D. Columbus, Cheng He 15c. A.D. Venice & Amsterdam 17-8c. Industrial Revolution in England and Imperialism 19c. The Rise of European powers and Intensified Colonization from the West to the rest 20c. Modernization of the West and the rest (Meiji Restoration, Gandhi) 1950s’ the emergence of intensified international co-operations, UN, IMF, the beginning of West-East Blocs, Cold War 1973: Oil Crisis: a new order of new international division of labour and the East Asian Miracles, Information Society (after Daniel Bell) 1979, 1986: Three miles/Chernobyl Disaster, the rise of risk society (after Ulrich Beck) 1990: the end of Cold War, triadization (NAFTA, EU and Japan), the rise of China as “the World Factory”, Global Institutions (after Anthony Giddens) 1997/8 Global Financial Bust 2000 Internet and Global Society (Y2K and global risk again after Ulrich Beck & Manuel Castells) 21c. Bio-informatics, there is no such man-nature divide? Globality, or consequences of Globalization : Globality, or consequences of Globalization Summaries from Malcolm Water (2001) There arises a global consciousness (we live in the same world) amidst of local and cultural differences; Geographical boundaries are eliminated by the interconnectedness of people and instructions. Globalization involves a phenomenal contraction of space and social activities are regulated prior to world time. Then people in this global area are reflexive – awareness of cultural differences and reorganization of livelihood with the process in contraction in space and regulated in world time (eg. Buying NYSE blue chips through internet) Globality, or consequences of Globalization: Globality, or consequences of Globalization The distinctions between individuals and society become blurred. There is no such thing like “permanent communities” and “life-long traditions”. People in the global era are individually re-configured into temporal establishments and there is a sense of “getting lost in belonging to a place, a community, a nation. Or there is only a temporal and individual commitment to a place, a community and nation, or in public or private, or at work or home. The consequence of liquid state of individual adherence to a place, community and a nation as such corners individuals in globality hardly choose what they really want, and they face the conundrum of risk and trust with individual knowledge, social network, and personal convictions. Globalization from the top: Globalization from the top Giddens (1990) defines the re-organization of institutions in the globe: world capitalist economy (after Wallenstein’s world-system theory) nation-state system to surveillance world military order (under US hegemony) international division of labour However, Giddens explicitly indicates that the reflexive project of global institutions is originated from the West, the locomotive of institutional globalization. Globalization from the top: Globalization from the top Ronald Robertson’s critiques on Giddens Euro-centric conceptions of modernity A systematic negligence in other cultures in diversity Alternative paths of modernization in other cultures are excluded, say, Meiji Restoration, Islamic modernity Such a position of globality is very alien to any understanding of cultural cross-over. Globalization from the bottom: Globalization from the bottom Ronald Robertson counter-proposes a process from the bottom, different local cultures: Local cultures are largely constructed in trans-locations and trans-nations, eg. Lolita amine. Glocalization – “formed and telescoping global and local to make a blend”, or global localization, eg. Japanese ethnic food in City Super, a re-embedding process to “local”, “home”, authentic quality. That leads to a state of cultural pluralism, with all equal standings of local cultures Globalization from the bottom: Globalization from the bottom This vision of globality purposed by Anthony Giddens is only an academic schema in seeing a ‘real global totality’. What we see is a myriad of cultural differences and cultural diversity circulated in the global media and trade (go back to the City Super again!). He echoes to Anthony D. King’s view: there is a large group of “Third World” educated classes, whose members seek professional qualifications from the core in UK and US. They willy-nilly wear pairs of spectacles that precede to this total view of globalization! Globalism: Globalism Globalism is the global and mainstream advocacy to more tighter co-operation and independence in global political economy, eg. ASEAN. Economic Globalism – WTO & free trade Political Globalism – EU and global governance Military Globalism – multilateral agreement against global terrorism and national security. Globalism: Globalism However, the idea of globalism is elevated to any connotation of neo-liberalism – an ideological stance that resorted to solutions to global problems prior to free trade and credit from IMF and G7. On the contrary, more economies from the Third World suffer from these monetary policies severely. 5 Ideological Claims of Globalism : 5 Ideological Claims of Globalism G is about liberalization and global integration of markets G is inevitable and irreversible No one is in charge of Globalization G benefits everyone G furthers the spread of democracy in the world Globalism: Globalism Here David Held and Anthony McGrew (1998) summarize different positions: Globalist – globalization is directed toward tighter co-operations of nation-states and international non-government organizations Global Skeptics – globalization do not create shared governance, but power is concentrated toward US and G7 in the guise of UN global governance Anti-globalization –any grass-root, local movements resist any measures, regulations and policies imposed by any agents of regional, national and global governance, by going on demonstrations and strikes. In some cases, urban violence is inevitable to victimize who these protesters and demonstrators are to gain global impact, primarily in the global media. In Short:: In Short: Globalization is a compression of time and space which privileges the capitalist economies (資本主義經濟體系) over non-capitalist and socialist societies(社會主義社會). In Short:: In Short: After all, globalization is first and foremost a political contest (政治競賽) - not an equal game on an equal basis. Yet, it is a never complete (永不完整)and contradictory process（矛盾過程）- an uneasy correlation of economic forces, power relations and social structures. Modernization Theories: Modernization Theories Modernization Theories (現代化理論): linear progress to be modern Key concept to remember! Modernization Theories: Modernization Theories Backdrop: the fear of socialism (社會主義) and the liberation of colonialism (殖民主義的解放) in the time of cold war (冷戰). Modernization Theories: Modernization Theories U.S. President Truman (杜魯門) in his inaugural address of 1949 announced the Point Four Program of Development Aid. It became the policy of the US to aid the underdeveloped countries. Modernization Theories: Modernization Theories Every country becomes western countries- western oriented model Modernization Theories: Modernization Theories Universalizing value: measured objectively- level of education, occupation, income, wealth, information and capability of consumption. Modernization Theories: Modernization Theories The world is divided into First World and Third World, or developed countries and developing countries. Modernization Theories: Modernization Theories Economic and Technological Support is not enough Political, Social and Cultural Barriers have to be cleared off Politically- undemocratic political systems Socially- traditional sexual division of labor Culturally- traditional culture is not aggressive Modernization Theories: Modernization Theories There is a call for comprehensive social and cultural change. Modernization is a social process to incorporate all kinds of countries into the same model of western countries. Modernization Theories: Modernization Theories It believes that all societies at different speeds, are moving towards the same direction, that is the path of modernity. Key concept to remember! Modernization Theories: Modernization Theories Modernization is very ideological (意識型態的), and is criticized as Euro-centric (以歐洲為中心的). Modernization, after all, is an attempt to preach American or western way of life. Dependency and World System Theories: Dependency and World System Theories Dependency theories (依附理論) criticized the modernization theory. It brings the structure of unequal relationships between rich and poor countries back into the picture. Dependency and World System Theories: Dependency and World System Theories The main argument: capitalist development actually created greater gap between First World and Third World countries, making them further dependent on First World countries for survival or development. Key concept to remember! Dependency and World System Theories: Dependency and World System Theories Countries develop at an uneven pace in relation to one another. And even inside the backward countries themselves, advanced and primitive features of economy and society co-exist. The original version of dependency and underdevelopment theory is then further developed by Gunder Frank and many others. Key concept to remember! Dependency and World System Theories: Dependency and World System Theories The dependency theory has been a world system approach, and the distrust of a global capitalist system: a. The subordination of the local economy to the structure of advanced capitalist countries. -- only produced primary goods for the industrial West. b. External orientation -- an extreme dependency on overseas markets, both for capital and technology sourcing and for production outlets. Key concept to remember! Long History Perspective: Long History Perspective Gundar Frank: globalism as fact of life already existed since at least 1500 for the world. The perception of a major new departure is (mis)informed by a Eurocentric point of view. Long History Perspective: Long History Perspective We are mis-guided into thinking that our world is only just now undergoing a belated process of “globalization”. Long History Perspective: Long History Perspective Globalization in Question: globalization is not a new social or historical force. In reviewing the historical evidence of world trade and capital flows, the level international economy in the present era is not unprecedented (不是前所未有的). Long History Perspective: Long History Perspective 1. In terms of amount of good and services that cross frontiers-- The percentage of all goods and services that are produced world-wide reached 33% in 1913. Today it is about 31%. 2. In relation to total world output-- the percentage share of world production subject to transnational corporate control has remained relatively stable in the past one hundred year. Long History Perspective: Long History Perspective 3. In term of global reach of world capitalism over the five continents-- the percentage of two continents, Latin America and Africa, in world trade and foreign capital flows had actually been declined. The expansive phase of capitalism is over: only a phase of deepening, but not widening capitalist integration. Key concept to remember! Distinctive Processes of Globalization: Distinctive Processes of Globalization 1) as a spatial and economic process: whether contributed to the end of geography and the rise of a borderless world (無邊界的世界) or not; 2) as a process of political economy (政治經濟學): something qualitatively new, or the process had been happened five hundred years ago Key concept to remember! Distinctive Processes of Globalization: Distinctive Processes of Globalization 3) as a socio-cultural process: whether leads to social polarization (社會兩極化), social exclusion, community fragmentation (社區零碎化), consumption homogeneity and identity crisis (身份危機). 4) As a cultural critique: whether as a neo-liberal ideology (新自由主義意識型態) or a myth of market power. Key concept to remember! Question:: Question: ** Is globalization merely a catch-all buzzword, an overstated process or merely an ideology (意識型態)?