Published on May 7, 2010
Transactional Analysis : Transactional Analysis Eric Berne Group No. # 10 Members: : Group No. # 10 Members: Abhishek DiptiGauri Namrata Ravi Santosh Vikrant index : index Transactional Analysis- Introduction Analysis of Self Awareness- The Johari Window First Order Structural Model The Ego States Analyzing a Transaction The Descriptive Model The OK Coral- Life Positions What is Transactional Analysis? : What is Transactional Analysis? In simple words: Model of Communication. Theory of Personality. A study of repetitive patterns of behavior. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation-reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction. What is Transactional Analysis? : What is Transactional Analysis? According to Eric Berne, when two people encounter each other, one of them will speak to the other. This is called the Transaction Stimulus. The reaction from the other person is called the Transaction Response. The person sending the Stimulus is called the Agent. The person who responds is called the Respondent. Transactional analysis (TA) is a technique used to help people better understand their own and other's behavior, especially in interpersonal relationships." Transactional Analysis became the method of examining the transaction wherein: 'I do something to you, and you do something back'. What is Transactional Analysis? : What is Transactional Analysis? Transactional analysis is primarily concerned with the following : (i) Analysis of Self Awareness (ii) Analysis of Ego states (iii) Analysis of Transactions (iv) Script analysis (v) Games analysis (vi) Analysis of life positions Analysis of Self Awareness(the johari window) : Analysis of Self Awareness(the johari window) Analysis of Self Awareness(the johari window) : Analysis of Self Awareness(the johari window) The Blind Self The blind self quadrant is unknown to self but known to others. Other people know what is happening to a person, but he himself is unaware of it. Very often such blind behavior is copied by individuals from certain significant people unconsciously right since the childhood. Reason for this unawareness is that other people are not willing to be open and do not give relevant feed back to the person concerned. There are chances of interpersonal conflict in this situation. Analysis of Self Awareness(the johari window) : Analysis of Self Awareness(the johari window) The Open Self (Arena) The open quadrant refers to behaviors, feelings and motivations of an individual which are known to self and also known to others. Individuals under this quadrant are very clear about what they are doing, what they are feeling and what are their motivations. Similarly others are also very clear about his actions, feelings and motivations. In such type of interpersonal relationship, chances of conflict, if any, will be very little. Analysis of Self Awareness(the johari window) : Analysis of Self Awareness(the johari window) The Hidden Self (Closed) The hidden self is the quadrant, which is known to self but not known to others. This is a very private and personal window because only the person concerned knows what is happening. The individual is aware about the hidden self but does not want to share it with others. Other people in the system are unable to perceive the verbal and non-verbal behavior of the person in quadrant. Like blind self, chances of interpersonal conflict are there is this situation. Analysis of Self Awareness(the johari window) : Analysis of Self Awareness(the johari window) The Unknown Self (Dark) This quadrant is unknown to self and unknown to others. The unknown self is mysterious in nature. Sometimes feelings and motivation go so deep that no one including the person concerned knows about them. In Psychology, this would be called the subconscious or unconscious. In such situations, there is much misunderstanding and interpersonal conflict is almost sure to result. Analysis of Self Awareness : Analysis of Self Awareness The NATIONAL TRAINING LABORATORY suggests the following guidelines for providing feedback for effective interpersonal relations : Be descriptive rather than judgmental. Be specific rather than general. Deal with things that can be changed. Give feedback when it is desired. Consider the motives for giving and receiving feedback. Give feedback at the time the behavior takes place. Give feedback when its accuracy can be checked with others. The Ego States : The Ego States Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual. Transactional Analysis -first order structural model (ego states) : Transactional Analysis -first order structural model (ego states) The Ego States : The Ego States PARENT Values, attitudes and behaviors of parents become an integral part of the personality of an individual. By parents, we do not mean, the natural parents but all those emotionally significant people like elder brothers, and sisters, school teachers, elder relatives or friends, who served as parent figure when an individual was a child. The attitudes, behaviors, values and habits of these people are recorded in the mind of the individual and these become the basis of this personality. We can change it, but this is easier said than done. The Ego States : The Ego States PARENT The characteristics of a person with parent ego are : Judgmental Value laden Rule maker Moralizing Over protective Distant Dogmatic Indispensable Upright The Ego States : The Ego States PARENT Physical Attributes of Parent Ego State: Angry expressions Impatient body-language Finger-pointing Patronizing gestures The Ego States : The Ego States PARENT Verbal Attributes of Parent Ego State: Use of words such as: Always Never For once and for all Judgmental words Critical words Patronising language Posturing language The Ego States : The Ego States CHILD The Child ego state is a set of behaviors, thoughts and feelings which are replayed from our own childhood. The child ego is characterized by very immature behavior. This is the seeing, hearing, feeling, and emotional body of data within each of us. We might go into someone's house and smell a lovely smell and remember our grandmother's house when we were little, and all the same warm feelings we had at six year's of age may come flooding back. Like our Parent we can change it, but it is no easier. The Ego States : The Ego States CHILD The characteristics of child ego state are: Creativity Conformity Anxiety Depression Dependence Fear Joy Emotional Sentimental Submissive Insubordinate and rebellious The Ego States : The Ego States CHILD Physical Attributes of Child Ego State: Attention Seeking Despair Temper tantrums Whining voice Coyness Giggling Teasing Delight The Ego States : The Ego States CHILD Verbal Attributes of Child Ego State: baby talk I wish I dunno I want I'm gonna I don't care Oh no, not again Things never go right for me The Ego States : The Ego States CHILD Verbal Attributes of Child Ego State(contd..): Worst day of my life Bigger Biggest Best Many superlatives Words to impress The Ego States : The Ego States ADULT The adult ego state is authentic, direct, reality based, rational, fact seeking and problem solving. People interacting with adult ego, do not act impulsively or in a domineering style. They assume human beings as equal, worthy and responsible. When in our Adult we are able to see people as they are, rather than what we project onto them. When in our Adult we ask for information rather than stay scared and rather than make assumptions. The Ego States : The Ego States ADULT(contd..) When in our Adult we constantly update ourselves through our every day experiences and using this to inform us. It is the means by which we keep our Parent and Child under control. He updates the parent data to determine what is valid and what is not. Similarly, he updates the child data to determine which feelings should be expressed. Thus,if we are to change our Parent or Child we must do so through our adult. The Ego States : The Ego States ADULT The characteristics of adult ego state are: Logical Choice Analytical Thoughtful Careful Relevant Information Generate Alternatives The Ego States : The Ego States ADULT Physical Attributes of Adult Ego State: Attentive Interested Straight-forward Tilted head Non-threatening Non-threatened The Ego States : The Ego States ADULT Verbal Attributes of Adult Ego State: Questioning Statements Comparative Expressions Reasoned Statements True False Probably Possibly The Ego States : The Ego States ADULT Verbal Attributes of Adult Ego State(contd..): I think I realize I see I believe In my opinion Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model : Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model : Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model Ineffective Modes Negative Controlling Parent Communicates a "You're not OK" message, and is punitive. Negative Nurturing Parent Communicates a "You're not OK" message. When in this mode the person will often do things for others which they are capable of doing for themselves. When in this mode the person is engulfing and overprotective. Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model : Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model Ineffective Modes(contd..) Negative Adapted Child Expresses an "I'm not OK" message. When in this mode the person over-adapts to others and tends to experience such emotions as depression, unrealistic fear and anxiety. Negative Free Child Express a "You're not OK" message. In this mode the person runs wild with no restrictions or boundaries. Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model : Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model Effective Modes Positive Nurturing Parent Communicates the message "You're OK". When in this mode the person is caring and affirming. Positive Controlling Parent Communicates the message "You're OK". This is the boundary setting mode. Offering constructive criticism, whilst being caring but firm. Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model : Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model Effective Modes(contd..) Positive Adapted Child Communicates an "I'm OK" message. From this mode we learn the rules to help us live with others. Positive Free Child Communicates an "I'm OK" message. This is the creative, fun loving, curious and energetic mode. Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model : Transactional Analysis- the descriptive model Effective Modes(contd..) Accounting mode Communicates "We're OK" messages. In this mode it is possible to choose which of the other effective modes to go into, dependent on the situation. We are then able to respond appropriately rather than flipping into historic ways of being, thinking and behaving which are likely to be inappropriate and unhelpful. The Ego States : The Ego States Analysis of Transactions : Analysis of Transactions Depending on the ego states of the persons involved in transactions, there may be three types of transactions : Complementary transactions Crossed transaction Ulterior transactions Analysis of Transactions : Analysis of Transactions Complementary transactions Here, the ego states of the sender and the receiver in the opening transaction are simply reversed in the response. In these transactions stimulus and response patterns from one ego state to another are parallel. There can be nine complementary transactions. 1) Adult-Adult(This is an ideal transaction.) 2) Adult-Parent Transaction 3) Adult-Child Transaction 4) Parent-Parent Transaction Analysis of Transactions : Analysis of Transactions Complementary transactions 5) Parent –Adult Transaction 6) Parent-Child Transaction 7) Child-Parent Transaction 8) Child-Adult Transaction 9) Child-Child Transaction Analysis of Transactions : Analysis of Transactions Complementary transactions Analysis of Transactions : Analysis of Transactions Crossed Transactions In this transaction, the sender sends a message or exhibits a behavior on the basis of his ego state, but this message or behavior is reacted to by an incompatible and unexpected ego state on the part of the receiver. Such transactions occur when the stimulus and response are not parallel. Crossed transactions are also undesirable. Analysis of Transactions : Analysis of Transactions Crossed Transactions Analysis of Transactions : Analysis of Transactions Ulterior Transaction The most complex because unlike complementary and crossed transactions, they always involve more than two ego states and the communication has double meaning. An ulterior transaction occurs when a person appears to be sending one type of message but is secretly sending another message. Just like crossed transactions, ulterior transactions are also undesirable. Analysis of Transactions : Analysis of Transactions Ulterior Transaction Script Analysis : Script Analysis In a Layman's view, a script is the text of a play, motion picture or radio or TV programme. In TA, a person's life is compared to a play and the script is the text of that play. As SHAKESPEARE said, "All the world is a stage. And all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances. Each man in his time play many parts.“ According to Eric Berne, "A script is an ongoing programme, developed in early childhood under parental influence which directs the individual behavior in the most important aspect of his life." Script Analysis : Script Analysis According to McClelland every person in his life time plays three basic roles which are called as the prosecutor, the rescuer and the victim. These roles can further be classified as legitimate and illegitimate. Some legitimate roles are : A Prosecutor: Someone who sets necessary limits on behavior or is charged with enforcing a rule. A Victim: Someone who qualifies for a job but is denied the job because of race, sex or religion. A Rescuer: Someone who helps a person who is functioning inadequately to become rehabilitated and self reliant. Script Analysis : Script Analysis The roles are said to be illegitimate if they are used like masks and people use them for the purposes of manipulation. These are : A prosecutor: Someone who sets unnecessary strict limits on behavior or is charged with enforcing the rules. but does so with sadistic brutality. A victim: Someone who does not qualify for a job but falsely claims that it is denied to him because of race, sex or religion. A Rescuer: Someone who in the guise of being helpful, keep others dependent upon him or her. Stroking : Stroking The term stroke refers to "giving some kind of recognition to the other." Strokes are exchanged whenever two persons interact with each other. The word stroking originated from the studies of the needs that babies have for physical affection for complete psychological development. According to Jongeward and Seyer, "People need strokes for their sense of survival and well being on the job." Lack of stroking can have negative consequences both on physiological and psychological well being of a person. Stroking : Stroking There are three types of strokes : 1. Positive strokes. The stroke that makes one feel good, is a positive stroke. Recognition, approval, pat on the back are some of the examples of positive strokes. For positive results on the jobs, it is crucial to give positive strokes to people. 2. Negative strokes. A stroke that makes one feel bad or not good is a negative stroke. Negative strokes hurt physically or psychologically. Hating, criticism and scolding are some of the examples of negative strokes. Stroking : Stroking 3. Mixed strokes. A stroke may be of a mixed type also. An example of combination of positive and negative strokes may be the boss's comment to a worker "you did an excellent job inspite your limited experience." Excellent job is a positive stroke and lack of experience is a negative stroke. People do not always seek positive strokes. For example, if the subordinate has committed a mistake and his boss criticizes him for that, the subordinate will feel relieved of his mistake since the expected punishment has been received. Games Analysis : Games Analysis When people fail to get enough strokes at work they may try a variety of things. One of the most important thing is that they play psychological games. A psychological game is a set of transactions with three characteristics: (i) The transaction tends to be repeated. (ii) They make sense on superficial or social level. (iii) One or more of the transactions is ulterior. Psychological games prevent people and organizations to become winners. Games Analysis : Games Analysis People play games with different degrees of intensity from the socially accepted, relaxed level to the criminal homicide/suicide level. According to Berne, following are some of the games : (i) A first degree game is one which is socially acceptable in the agent's circle. (ii) A second degree game is one from which no permanent irremedial damage arises, but which the player would rather conceal from the public. (iii) A third degree game is one which is played for keeps and which ends in the surgery, the courtroom or the morgue. Games Analysis : Games Analysis Jongeward has suggested the following steps to overcome psychological games: 1. Avoidance of the complementary hand 2. Avoidance of acting roles involved in games particularly, victim roles. 3. Avoidance of putting other people down. 4. Avoidance of putting oneself down. 5. Giving and taking positive strokes as against negative strokes. 6. Investing more of life's time in activities and intimacy 7. Leveling the thinking with others. Life Positions-the ok coral : Life Positions-the ok coral Conclusion : Conclusion The understanding of TA can help us in the following ways: Improved interpersonal communication. Source of Psychic energy. Understanding the ego states. Motivation. Organizational development. Slide 56: THANK YOU!!