Published on August 5, 2014
PowerPoint Presentation: TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM WHAT IS TRANSPORTATION ?: WHAT IS TRANSPORTATION ? Transportation is the process in which a substance absorbed or made in one part of body is moved to other parts of body. WHY DO WE NEED IT? Food and oxygen are taken at one place in the body while all parts of the body need them. This situation creates a need for a transportation system for carrying food and oxygen from one place to another in the body. TRANPORTATION IN HUMAN BEINGS: TRANPORTATION IN HUMAN BEINGS COMPONENTS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM: COMPONENTS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM LYMPHATIC SYSTEM CIRCULATORY SYSTEM COMPONENTS- BLOOD,HEART AND VESSELS COMPONENTS - LYMPH, LYMPH NODES, LYMPH VESSELS Components of circulatory system: BLOOD BLOOD VESSELS HEART Components of circulatory system PowerPoint Presentation: PLASMA It is a colourless fluid in which the RBCs, WBCs and plateletes are immersed. It carries proteins, digested food and hormones. BLOOD IT IS A RED COLOURED FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE WHICH CIRCULATES IN OUR BODY. 2)Blood Vessels: 2)Blood Vessels ARTERIES, VEINS AND CAPILLARIES: ARTERIES VEINS Arteries carry blood away from the heart to body. They are thick walled. No valves are present. Blood flows under pressure. They are deep seated. Veins carry blood from body back to heart. They are thin walled. Valves are present. Blood doesn’t flow under pressure. They are superficially placed. ARTERIES, VEINS AND CAPILLARIES PowerPoint Presentation: CAPILLARIES- Arterioles divide to form one cell thick blood vessels called capillaries . These are the smallest vessels. Exchange of materials between blood and surrounding cells takes place across this wall .The capillaries then join to form venules which further form veins. THE HEART: THE HEART PLACEMENT OF HEART- Heart is placed in between the lungs between 3 rd and 6 th ribs tilted towards left. In rare cases, it may be tilted towards right. THE HEART: THE HEART STRUCTURE OF HEART: Heart is a muscular organ as big as our fist. It weighs around 310 gram. It has four chambers to prevent mixing of oxygen rich blood with deoxygenated blood. The upper two chambers are called atriums and lower ones are called ventricles . A dividing wall called septum separates the two ventricles . A sheath of tissue called pericardium protects heart. FUNCTION OF HEART: Pumps blood around our body. Different parts of heart: Different parts of heart 1)VENTRICLES : Pump blood. 2)ATRIA : Receive blood. 3)VENA CAVA : Bring deoxygenated blood from body to heart. It is main vein. 4)AORTA : Carry de-oxygenated blood from heart to body. It is main artery. 5)SEPTUM : Dividing wall 6) VALVES : Ensure that blood doesn’t flow backwards when atria or ventricles contract. They are also present between veins. PowerPoint Presentation: 7) PULMONARY VEINS : Bring oxygenated blood from lungs to heart. 8)PULMONARY ARTERIES : Carry deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs. WORKING OF HEART: WORKING OF HEART When the atria relax the pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood from lungs into the left atrium whereas vena cava brings de-oxygenated blood from body into the right atrium. When atria contract ventricles relax. When L.A. contracts the oxygenated blood is pushed into the L.V. and de-oxygenated blood is pushed into R.V. through valve. When L.V. contracts the oxygenated blood is forced into main artery called aorta from where it is pumped to whole body. When R.V. contracts blood is pumped to lungs through pulmonary artery for oxygenation of blood. DOUBLE CIRCULATION: DOUBLE CIRCULATION Circulation of blood in mammals and aves is called double circulation as blood goes twice through heart in one circulation. PULMONARY CIRCULATION : Circulation between heart and lungs. SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION : Circulation between heart and body organs. USE OF CHAMBERS IN HEART: USE OF CHAMBERS IN HEART The separation on right side and the left side oh heart is useful to keep oxygenated blood from mixing with de-oxygenated blood. This allows high efficient supply of oxygen to body .Warm blooded animals like aves and mammals have four chambered heart because they have to maintain their body temperature that requires energy. BLOOD PRESSURE: BLOOD PRESSURE The force that blood exerts against the wall of vessel is called blood pressure . It is measured with an instrument called sphygmomanometer. SYSTOLIC PRESSURE-The blood pressure inside the artery during ventricular contraction. Normal systolic pressure is about 120mm. DIASTOLIC PRESSURE- Pressure in artery during ventricular relaxation is called diastolic pressure. Diastolic pressure is about 80 mm of Hg. SPHYGMOMANOMETER: SPHYGMOMANOMETER Components of Lymphatic system: Lymph LYMPH vessels Lymph nodes Components of Lymphatic system PowerPoint Presentation: LYMPH- It is an extracellular fluid. It carries digested fat back to blood streams. LYMPH VESSELS- Lymph flows through lymph vessels. LYMPH NODES- These are a bunch of lymphocytes that kills pathogens.