Published on October 4, 2007
Slide1: Raj K. Gupta Rice Wheat Consortium for Indo-Gangetic Plains CIMMYT-India, NASC Complex, Pusa, New Delhi Resource Conserving Technologies for Enhancing Productivity of Rice Wheat Systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Introduction and RWC Focus: Introduction and RWC Focus ■ 1990-94, IRRI, CIMMYT, and NARS: Laid the foundation for collaborative research ■ 1995-98, ICRISAT, “Established a NARS-led Consortium- as CG Ecoregional Initiative” ■ 1999- CIMMYT convenes RWC to pursue inter-disciplinary research in RW Focus of RWC : ■ System ecology perspectives. ■ Integration of different thematic activities in relation to the way crops are established- Tillage at center stage. ■ Farmers’ participatory mode of research. ■ Technologies targeted in Transect approach. ■ Important events: TAC Review in 1999, and CG Award Slide3: Rice Wheat Soils Calcareous/Acidic 10.7 7.9 LS- Sl C 10.7 7.9 LS- SL C 9.5 7.0 SL-SiL C 9.2 6.8 SiL- Cl C/A 7.7 5.2 SL-Sicl C/A Climatic potential yield (Mg ha-1) 1 2 3 4 5 Soil RW in Indo-Gangetic Plains Transects Slide4: Late onset of Monsoons, / less rains Non-development of ground water in eastern IGP for raising Rice nurseries for main season crop Water shortages, GW mining Labor shortages, Less plant population Delayed rice seeding & Rice transplanting, Pest carry over to scented rice Delayed & excessive tillage, puddling degrades soils Shortages of draft/ Energy & Inputs Previous use of fields in nursery / fodders etc. Seedbed – length Sensitive cultivars Late Planting of Wheat Yield stagnation at low levels, Crop residue burning, SOM decline Secondary salinization, Receding water tables, Declining factor productivity, Menace of Phalaris minor, Reduced biodiversity Sustainability Dimensions of Rice-Wheat Systems Excessive Tillage for wheat sowing Slide5: Food security will depend on new agronomic and crop management options and the capacity of farming communities to adapt them in relation to climatic change. Resilient resource conserving practices need to be complemented with new cultivars having higher yield potential and greater stability- produce more at less costs on a sustainable basis. Irrigation systems must adapt to climate change to sustain agricultural production and meet competing water demands from other sectors. IPCC - 3rd Assessment: Some Key Concerns Slide6: Adapting to Climate Change and Mitigation Options: Zero-tillage Rice stubbles retained/ mulched Zero-Tillage saves 70-90 L of diesel/ha and ~1.0 ML water. Prevents yield losses @ 35- 43 kg/ha/day or more Less population of resistant weed- P. Minor. Improves input use efficiency. Farmers save INR 2-2.5 K/ha. Reduced/ eliminate burning of crop residues Slide7: MATRIX OF OPTIONS FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF CROPS IN RICE WHEAT SYSTEM † Overarching concerns, Cultivars, Weeds, IPM, Residue & Machines Slide8: New bed planter cum zero-till machine Costs~ US$ 500 New Multi seeding device Slide9: Bed Planting and Residues Management Eliminates burning of crop residues Better early growth and crop yields Bed planted wheat with rice residues incorporated in combine harvested rice plots Manually harvested rice: Wheat planted with single tractor pass Slide10: Source: Samar Singh, 2000. HAU Uchani; @Mehla, R.S. etal. 2000. Wheat yields with different tillage options. CT ZT @ O-Tilled wheat planted earlier than conventional method . *Seeding dates comparable, Average yields in 2 Yrs. Slide11: 100% 109.4% 115.4% Gain due to Time Gains due to IUE & Weed Control Wheat Yield, Mg.ha-1 Tillage Options Regional Productivity Gains in Zero-tilled Wheat Slide12: Improvements in Zero-till Practices Reduced soil compaction. Tracks facilitate other crop operations. Less of costly seed. Paired-row planting improves yield. Controlled Traffic Controlled traffic-Paired Row Control traffic-Paired Row Permanent Beds- zero-tilled Wheat Yield with Zero-till Technologies: Wheat Yield with Zero-till Technologies # Compared with conventional tilled wheat planted a week later (*); ** One row behind each tractor tyre not sown; @ Spacing between set-rows (14 cm); and between paired sets (25cm). Slide14: Competitive and Stable Cultivars for Different Tillage options 2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000 4250 4500 4750 ZT CTS CTD Yield, Kg/ha PBW343 HD2329 WH542 HD2009 Wheat Slide15: Targeting the Technologies Rice Fallows : Potential Areas for Production “Rice Fallows” occupy ~ 14Mha. Intensification / diversification Target technologies to grow more - (ZT, Surface seeding/ Reduced Till, Boro Rice, winter maize, legumes para-cropping). Slide16: Surface seeded wheat after rice Timely seeding in wet soils, Increased cropped acreage and yields > 3Mgha-1 Rice Fallows can be avoided Mulches reduce weeds, save on water, betters seedling vigor. Targeting Surface Seeding to “Rice Fallows” in eastern IGP Water-Wise Strategy:: Water-Wise Strategy: Irrigation scheduling : Does not seem to have worked ! Land Leveling Improve uniformity in water application, germination and yields - Land leveling betters crop stand and improve N x W interactions and facilitates adoption of RCTs. - Saves 3-4% land from bunds, channels and cut corners. Slide19: Transplanted Rice (L)/ Direct Dry Seeded Rice (R)-On Raised Beds Benefits: Saves irrigation water (~ 40%). Saves costly seed, less lodging. In situ conservation of rain water. Improve crop yields and NUE. Larger panicles, bolder seed and improved crop yields. Water-wise Strategies: Planting rice on raised beds Slide20: EFFECT OF TILLAGE OPTIONS ON TOTAL IRRIGATION TIME, YIELD ATTRIBUTES AND GRAIN YIELD OF RICE. DSRB, direct dry seeded rice on beds; TRB, transplanted unpuddled rice on beds; ZTR, zero-tilled rice on flat; RTR, reduced-till transplanted rice on flats; CT, conventional tillage. ** Number of farmers participating in the trials ( ). *** Precent saving in water ( in Hrs.) in relation to farmers practices. † Reduced yields due to severe iron chlorosis in initial crop growth stages. Intermittent irrigation can further add on to savings in water in flat planted rice.