Published on December 28, 2007
TURKEY: TURKEY A country in transition A land with plenty of natural beauties…: A land with plenty of natural beauties… Slide3: And historical wealth… Slide4: With rich cultural heritage… The pride of Turks: The best of WORLD CUP 02 : The pride of Turks: The best of WORLD CUP 02 Turkish National Soccer Team The best team in Europe: Galatasaray Geo-political location: Geo-political location Cradle of many civilizations Melting pot of cultures The land that Asia and Europe meet Provides a natural passage from Black Sea to Mediterranean Sea Several religions (including Christianity and Islam) meet and mix Slide7: Modern Turkey bridges them all. Historical Background: Historical Background Pre-Turkish period (from antiquity until 11th Century) Hittites (2000-1000 BC) Phrygians, and Lydian's (1000-550 BC) Hellenistic period (800-130 BC) Romans (130 BC- 395 AD) Byzantine era (395-1453) Slide9: Ancestral Homeland of Turkic people Seljuks Anatolian Seljuks Slide10: Rise of Ottoman Empire (14th and 15th Century) Aftermath of WWI: Aftermath of WWI Ottoman Empire and her allies (Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire and Bulgaria) lost the war Allied Powers decided to partition Ottoman territories in the Middle East and create new states Invasion of Turkish territories in Thrace and Anatolia by Britain, France, Italy and Greece Turkish resistance to foreign invasion begins with the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (1919) Turkish Independence War (1919-1922), all the territories in Thrace and Anatolia are regained Founding of Turkish Republic (29 October 1923) Slide14: Turkish Republic (1923) Transition form an Empire to a Republic: Transition form an Empire to a Republic Change in political system: Nationalism and westernization, unitary state, parliamentary democracy. Ottoman dynasty exiled. Social Reforms: Secularism, abolition of Caliphate. New civil and penal codes, metric system of units. Switch to Latin script, abolition of old education system. Rights of Women. Westernization in arts, literature and sciences. Economical system: Emphasize on industrialization, encouragement of private enterprise, state enterprise in heavy industry. Self-sufficiency in traditional economic activities. Turkey during WWII: Turkey during WWII Mustafa Kemal Atatürk dies (1938) Turkey is neutral till very end of WWII Crisis of Straits Multiparty system Cold War and its consequences(another transition period) : Cold War and its consequences (another transition period) Turkey joins UN forces fighting in Korea (1950) Concerns about Soviet ambitions, Turkey becomes a full member of NATO (1952) Rise of economical and social problems, concerns about civil liberties 1960 military coup, return to democracy in early 1963 Cyprus crisis Oil crisis and its impact on Turkish economy Turmoil of late 70’s, 1980 military coup, return to democracy in 1983 Post Cold War Turkey: Post Cold War Turkey New relations with Caucasian states, Central Asian Turkic states and Russia New relations with Balkan states Gulf War and its consequences for Turkish economy and political thought PKK terrorism Uncertainty in the Middle East, Turkey’s unique position Challenges in the 21st Century…: Challenges in the 21st Century… Economy Rise of fundamentalism Rapid urbanization Human rights Political instability in the region Slide20: Outlook for the future… …is bright! References and sources of information:: References and sources of information: Books: S.J. Shaw, History of Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Cambridge, 1976 B. Lewis, The Middle East, Simon & Schuster, 1995 P.B. Golden, Introduction to History of Turkic Peoples, O. Harrassowitz, 1992 J.A. Garraty and P.Gay, The Columbia History of the World, Harper & Row, 1972 Web sites: Turkish embassy website: www.turkey.org/ Turkish Ministry of Culture website: www.kultur.gov.tr/ US Library of Congress website: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/troc.html Turkish Odyssey website: www.turkishodyssey.com/turkey/history/ Teşekkür ederim. Hoşçakalınız!