turkey cordoba meeting

Information about turkey cordoba meeting

Published on November 23, 2007

Author: lusi

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND IRRIGATED LANDS IN TURKEY PART-1 Slide2:  Irrigated Agriculture Water management Irrigation Role in Turkey WATER SCARCITY:  WATER SCARCITY Iincreasing of population. Pollution of reseorces. Water saving opportunities should be considered within this domain. LAND RESOURCES :  LAND RESOURCES Total Land: 77.95 Mha Agricultural Land: 28.05 Mha (36.5%) Irrigable Land: 25.85 Mha Economically Irrigated Area: 8.5 Mha Irrigated Area: 4.3 Mha (16.6% ) Unirrigated Area: (83%) WATER RESOURCES :  WATER RESOURCES Average Rainfall: 643 mm Total Rainfall: 501.0 km3 Total Flow: 186 km3 Usable Water Flow: 95 km3 Ground Water Potential: 13.66 km3 Total Available Water: 108.66 km3 Almost 40% of total water resources are used for irrigation and other purposes. Today, Turkey can not use soil and water resources effectively, due to personnel, coordination, political and economics problems. Slide6:  Total Water from dams is 42 000 Mm3 Urban consumption: 15%, Industrial: 10% irrigation: 75%; Slide7:  Irrigated lands in The Regions developed by DSI Marmara: 199,195 (8.5%) Aegean : 401,501 (17.2%) Mediterranean: 540,912 (23.1%) Southeastern: 189,368 (8.1%) East Anatolia: 308,346 (13.1%) Black Sea: 153,471 (6.6%) Middle Anatolia: 547,404 (23.4%) Source: DSI (2001). Slide8:  PROBLEMS (During operating stage of systems) Water losses problems (low system performances) Environmental problems (Salinity, ground water ) Slide9:  Cotton is the most important crop for developing industry in Turkey. It can be videly growen in Mediterranean, Eagean, and South-Easts Regions. Slide10:  Cotton is irrigated by surface methods mainly furrow. Irrigation efficiencies are to low and water losses are high by deep percolation and run-off. Slide11:  Evapotranspiration of Cotton Çukurova: Arıklı: 736 mm (MAD=60%) İncirlik: 823 mm (MAD=40%) Arpacı: 788 mm (MAD=40%) Mutlu Soil Series: 500 mm (BREB) 630 mm (WB) Yield (Average): 3000-3500 kg/ha Slide12:  In arid and semi-arid regions, because of increasing allocations of water for municipal and industrial use, major changes came about in water use under irrigated agriculture. New innovations had to be tested and adapted to increase effective use of decreasing water allocations for agricultural use. Yield Functions Slide13:  Some Results of Cotton Yield Functions Experiments on the deficit irrigation of cotton are being considered with different ways: To spread of water Deficiencies through the growing season: Wetting the diffrent soil depths Decreasing irrigation water as control treatment Slide14:  To use different plant-pan coefficients To use different irrigation intervals To use different lateral spacing in drip irrigation To use line source sprinkler irrigation technique Slide15:  Water stress exposed at the different growth stages: To apply omitted irrigation approach To use deficit irrigation method in the sub-growth stage in an individual growth stage Slide17:  Pistachio Problems:  (1) Low Yield    (2) Irregularity of pistachio production (periodicity)   Genetically Controlled    Poor Cultural Practices     Pistachio Growing Area:  Pistachio Growing Area Slide19:  Water Consumption of Pistachio Şanlıurfa District: ET:850 mm (20 days int.) ET: 700 mm (30 days int.) Gaziantep District: ET: 550 mm (If1N3Kpc2) ET: 400 mm (If2N3Kpc2) Slide20:  Yield Şanlıurfa: 3940-1630 kg/ha (20 days int.) 2590-1710 kg/ha (30 days) int. Gaziantep: 1170 kg/ha (If2N3) 700 kg/ha (Tradit.) Slide21:  Experimental Orchard WP2 and WP3 WORK PACKAGES (P7) of DIMAS on COTTON AND PISTCHIO RESPONSE UNDER DIFFERENT FERTIGATION AND IRRIGATION PRACTICES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND SOUTHEAST ANATOLIA REGIONS IN TURKEY:  WP2 and WP3 WORK PACKAGES (P7) of DIMAS on COTTON AND PISTCHIO RESPONSE UNDER DIFFERENT FERTIGATION AND IRRIGATION PRACTICES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND SOUTHEAST ANATOLIA REGIONS IN TURKEY PART-2 Slide23:  Subjects or objectives of project: (1) Development of simulation model for deficit irrigation (DI) design and yield and biomass prediction in limited water and nitrogen conditions for cotton and pistachio; (2) Generation of recommendations for deficit irrigation to farmers and water managers that have limited water and nitrogen resources and will reduce water and nitrogen amount for irrigation; (3) Examine the most appropriate irrigation/fertigation practices of pistachio orchards and cotton fields. (4) Introduce the new irrigation technology consisting of trickle irrigation system and fertigation techniques in Southeast Region of Turkey. COTTON: Treatments and Experimental Design :  COTTON: Treatments and Experimental Design Irrigation: Line source sprinkler Water Level: I3 (FI, Full irrigation) Water level: I2 (DI-1, mild stress) Water level: I1 (DI-2, moderate stress) Irrigation : 40% level of AW in 120 cm depth (or 10-15 days interval) Nitrogen : At the owing time and at the first irrigation Nitrogen Level: N0: 0 kg/ha, N1: 100 kg/ha, N2: 150 kg/ha, N3: 200 kg/ha. Basal fertilizers: 80 kg/ha phosphorous and 40 kg/ha potash during the sowing time. Slide25:  EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF COTTON PISTACHIO: Treatments:  PISTACHIO: Treatments Irrigation intervals: If1=3-4 days; If2=7 days Pan Coefficients: Kpc1=0.60; Kpc2=0.90 Nitrogen Concentrations: Nt=traditional; N1=20 mg/L; N2=40 mg/L Phosphorus, 15 mg/L and potassium, 10 mg/L Nt: 500 g nitrogen, 400g potash and 500 g phosphorus per tree      Experimental Design::  Experimental Design: Split-Split; three Replication, 8 to 10 trees in every plots. Slide28:  Experimental Design: Split-Split; three Replication Main Plot: Nitrogen concentration Sub-plot: Irrigation Interval Sub-sub (mini) Plot: Pan Coefficient 3-4 Days 7 Days N2 Measurements and Observations:  Measurements and Observations Climatic Data (daily measurements): For ET0 calculation, Rainfall Soil Profile Charesteristics: Depth, Texture, Water holding capacity, Change of soil water content during crop growing period for each crop, Crop: Yield and yield components, heigth, LAI, cower, biomass, LWP, nitrogen content of tissue, etc. Turkish Team:  Turkish Team Rıza Kanber (Coordinator) Mustafa Ünlü Yusuf Aydin Ayzin Küden Özgül Görmüş Servet Tekin D. Levent Koç Abdullah Yaman

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