Published on February 26, 2008
Open-minded Portraits: Open-minded Portraits Purpose: to help students think more deeply about a character and reflect on story events from the character’s point of view. Rationale: if the students understand the character and motivation they will develop deeper meaning. Procedure: Have students draw and color large portrait of head and neck of character in a book they are reading. Have students cut out portrait and attach with a brad or staple to another sheet of drawing paper. Have students trace around character’s head on 2nd page. Have students lift portrait and draw and write about characters’ thoughts on 2nd page. Have students share portraits with the class and talk about words and pictures they chose to include in mind of the character. Strengths: helps clarify what things/thoughts are important to the teacher, promotes Multiple Intelligences. Weaknesses: drawing may be difficult for some students Reading Conferences: Reading Conferences Purpose: to engage students in meaningful dialogue about books. Rationale: the more effective reader, the more comprehensive and better writers. Procedure: Group students for the year. Explain to them that they will meet about the books they are reading. Have a question for the week that the students write about. Have students bring their literature logs to conferences. Strengths: sense of accomplishment Weaknesses: Grouping and student follow through Story Quilts : Story Quilts Purpose: picking out moral of the story, individualize engagement of the story for each students while they move to symbolic drawings. Rationale: motivation-the more involved in the story the students are, the more they will want to read further. Procedure: Each student picks a quote that sums the moral of the story up for them. They then make a symbol to represent the quote. Using these symbols and quotes, the students will then make a quilt square on paper or cloth. After all the squares are completed, assemble the quilt on a bulletin board or into the quilt (if using cloth) Strengths: can make a risk free project Weaknesses: be prepared to teach quilting. time consuming breaking risk barrier with students could be problematic. Cloze Procedure: Cloze Procedure Purpose: a strategy to help determine if the reading level is suitable or not; also can be used as a test of comprehension of the text being studied. Rationale: when the students are able to fill in the blanks, the book is suitable for the age level. Procedure: Select the passage from a textbook. Retype the passage. The 1st sentence is typed as it appears in original text. Replace every 5th word with a blank. Students read passage 1st. Then guess what belongs in each blank. Score the work, 1 point for each correct answer. Compare the percentage of word replacement with this scale: 61% correct independent 41-60% correct instructional below 40% frustration! Strengths: an alternate way of assessing needs. Weaknesses: some word processing Reader’s Theater: Reader’s Theater Purpose: to involve students in the text and to aid in the interpretation of the text, while students internalize the information. Rationale: the more engaged the students are in the text, the more they comprehend; also a good way to motivate students to read more because it is fun. Procedure: Select a story for script. Have students volunteer for parts. Rehearse production. Students decide on how to use their voice, gestures and facial expressions to portray character they are reading. Stage the production. May be informal. Act the story in class or in front of an audience. Strengths: helps understanding of characters and their situations; fun! Weaknesses: time and behavioral management may be an issue. Quickwrites and Quickdraws: Quickwrites and Quickdraws Purpose: Before: to activate prior knowledge After: assists in clarifying meaning and arrange information Rationale: by having students write or draw, enhances understanding of topic being covered or gives the teacher an idea what a student may know before the topic is covered. Procedure: Ask students to write or draw on a topic for 5-10 minutes. Encourage them to focus on interesting ideas, make connections to topic, and to own lives, and reflect on their reading or learning. After students write, they usually share quickwrites/draws in small groups or during big group, entire activity can be finished in about 20 minutes. Quickwrite and Quickdraws, cont.: Quickwrite and Quickdraws, cont. Uses: entry for reading logs define or explain a word on the word wall theme of story about a favorite character comparing book and film versions about a favorite book during author study about a project students are creating Strengths: helps students organize and identify thoughts; aids in comprehension Weaknesses: ????? SMART: SMART Purpose: the students will use this strategy to help in reading comprehension Rationale: students will be aware of what they are reading and works on their comprehension. Procedures: While reading, put a: “X” in the margin if they understand what they just read or a “?” in the margin if they don’t understand what they just read. When finished reading, explain what they just read. If they don’t understand, have them try to explain why. After all this, if students still don’t understand, just skip it. Strengths: could help with comprehension by showing students where they got lost. Weaknesses: takes time to work through this strategy. Inserting symbols: Inserting symbols Purpose: to use symbols while reading to help categorize information Rationale: to help students to become more efficient readers Procedure: while reading any text use the following symbols to describe what was read, using pencil of course! ***or use any other symbol that is comfortable to you*** Knew it= ^ Don’t think so= X New knowledge= + NEATO Please Remember= ! I wonder= ? Don’t understand= ?? Really understand= ** Strengths: helps students be more efficient by categorizing the information they have just read Weaknesses: rules about writing in the school/library books—may need to encourage use of pencils Re-quest: Re-quest Procedures/instructions: Both the students and the teacher silently read a common segment of the text selection. It is recommended that you read one sentence at a time for students with lower comprehension. However, text passages of varying lengths are suitable in application to a classroom. For example, both teacher and students begin by reading a paragraph or two. The teacher closes the book and is questioned about the passage by the students. Next there is an exchange in roles. The teacher now questions the students about the material. Upon completion of the student-teacher exchange, the next segment of text is read. Steps 2 & 3 are repeated. Re-quest, cont.: Re-quest, cont. At a suitable point in the text, that is, when the students have processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the assignment, the exchange of questions stops. The teacher then asks prediction questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” “What else will happen?” “Why did you say that?” “Did you find that information in the text?” Students are then assigned the remaining portion of the selection to read silently. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. SQ3R: SQ3R Procedures/instructions: Choose a chapter from the text. Teacher and students together examine the chapter while teacher starts by showing students how she/he surveys the chapter looking for center, side, and paragraph headings. Next, she/he uses a blank transparency (lined to look like notebook paper) on the overhead projector. Turn the heading into a question and place it in the left column of the transparency. Read the text that follows the heading. Teacher then explains her/his thought process in answering the question suggested by the heading and writes the answer in the right column of the transparency. Repeat this process until you are sure the students understand the process. OR Choose a chapter from the text. Teacher goes through attached handout that outlines step-by-step SQ3R. Literature Journals/Reading Logs: Literature Journals/ Reading Logs Purpose: To write reactions and opinions about books they are reading. Rationale: By engaging in this process students become reflective readers. It also aids in comprehension. Procedure: Make logs by stapling notebook paper together or staple paper to a file folder. Write name of book on a page, name of chapter and chapter number Write reflections on the chapter. Relate book to own lives or other literature. Monitor entries. Check to make sure they are completed. Comment on reflections. Strengths: Students learn to reflect on their own reading, asking questions and making comments. Weaknesses: Time consuming to write feedback in each journal. Check once a week to reduce grading or develop a simple scoring rubric such as the one that follows. Journal Entry Scorecard: Journal Entry Scorecard Note: This scorecard will be used as a guide for you to write your responses and for me to grade. You do not have to have all of the criteria in one category to receive that score. For instance, you may have a very well-develop response that shares your feelings and insights, and for the most part is well-organized, but your response has five or more grammar/spelling problems resulting in lower grade on the scale. Story Maps and Frames: Story Maps and Frames Purpose: Uses graphic organizers to work with story structure for comprehension. Rationale: As students see organization and relationships between story parts, they then have better comprehension and are more able to make inferences. Six Types: Beginning, middle, end—examines plot. Character clusters—examines traits of main characters. Venn diagrams—comparisons. Sociograms—explores relationships between characters. Plot profiles—examines tension. Clusters—probe many dimensions of a story. Strengths: Helps the students examine the different components of the story. Weaknesses: ??? Story Boards: Story Boards Purpose: To work with story structure for comprehension. Rationale: As students see organization and relationships between story parts, they then have better comprehension and are more able to make inferences. Procedure: Using paper, have students fold the paper into 3 sections. In each section, have students draw pictures of the beginning, middle, and end. The students then write sentences about each picture they have drawn, describing what it is about. The students then share their story boards. Strengths: Students get more practice at identifying the beginning, middle, and end. Weaknesses: Drawing may be difficult for some students. So, grade on the ideas not drawings. Learning Logs: Learning Logs Purpose: To record the information they are learning, write questions and reflections about their learning. Rationale: By putting their thoughts down on paper the students gain a different perspective on the reading material. Procedure: Have students make learning logs at the beginning of a theme study. Plan activities for logs: *note-taking *drawing diagrams *quickwrites *clusters Impromptu writing is the basis for writing. Monitor entries. Respond to questions and clarify confusions. Strengths: Students think about what they are reading. Weaknesses: Could be time consuming when having to respond to all the journals/logs. Rubric highlighted earlier could easily be adapted. PReP(Prereading Plan): PReP(Prereading Plan) Purpose: To diagnose students prior knowledge and provide necessary background knowledge so students will be prepared to understand what they will be reading. Rationale: A diagnostic and instructional procedure used when students read informational books and content area textbooks. Procedure: Introduce key concepts to students using a word, phrase, or picture to initiate a discussion. Have students brainstorm words about the topic, and record their ideas on a chart. Help make connections among brainstorm ideas. Present additional vocabulary and clarify any misconceptions. Have students draw pictures and/or write a quickwrite about topic using words from the brainstorm list. Have students share quickwrites and ask questions to help clarify and elaborate quickwrites. Strengths: To help the students learn about a subject before starting a lesson. Weaknesses: Classroom management during brainstorming session. Need to be clear on classroom rules for sharing ideas generated during PReP. Assisted Reading Strategies: Assisted Reading Strategies Purpose: To provide support to students in reading through extension in time or giving a support person who is a fluent or equal reader. Rationale: Research shows reading is an interactive and social process. With reading, a partner is beneficial for some students. READ ALOUD (story telling) Purpose: To enjoy a story with no responsibility of text. Lends support to language structure and reading as a process. Procedure: Gather class as a group and read aloud. DEAR Time (Drop Everything And Read) Purpose: Provides time for students to read a selection of their choice. Procedure: Everyone read, including teacher. No Interruptions! Weakness: Need to find a time to pick a book beforehand. Assisted Reading, cont.: Assisted Reading, cont. Shared Reading (big books) Purpose: To make text big enough for all to see. Procedure: Gather around book (or overhead if necessary) Talk about author, title page, publishers, copyright page. Students join in reading story. Discuss punctuation Strengths: Class is together learning about books. Weaknesses: Behavior management. Sight problems 4. Paired Reading Purpose: To help less fluent reader by having a better reader assist. Procedure: *read together aloud at the same time OR *switch off, 1 reader reads a passage, other picks up where other left off Strengths: Socialization Weakness: Better reader may take over 5. Buddy Reading Purpose: To help two equal readers attain more fluency. Procedure: Same as paired reading. Running Record: Running Record Purpose: To observe individual students read aloud while teacher assesses their reading fluency. Rationale: To be able to assess the reading level using misuse analysis. Procedure: Choose book. Then choose excerpt of 100-200 words and retype As each student reads aloud make running record using the following score: if the word is read incorrectly, write the word said above it. self-correct-write the original word said then “SC” attempts at a word-record each attempt above the word skips a word-draw a dash through the word adds word-draw a ^ and record each added word teacher helps with words-draw a T over the word helped with repetition-draw an “X” over repeated words Running Record, cont.: Running Record, cont. Calculate % of miscues 85% correct is instructional 95% correct is independent Analyze miscues. Strengths: 1) Point out where skills are weak. 2) Shows improvement 3) Good assessment tool Weaknesses: Time consuming to make the record. ***Hint*** Video Tape session for later analysis! MENU (This one is just good management.): MENU (This one is just good management.) Purpose: A menu shows the class and instructor when a certain activity is planned. It also helps students organize their time. Also can help with collecting absent students’ work. A class secretary can be selected to copy the menu and collect/document assignments done that day. Rationale: The menu system will develop time management as well as help the teacher and students to stay on task. By checking off each section, the students will have a sense of accomplishment. Procedure: Before the day starts, teacher should write the day’s plan, as well as the time each subject will be covered. Check off each subject as it is accomplished. Strengths: Helps organization of time for teacher and student. Helpful with absent students. Can be a praise system by checking off time. Weaknesses: Need to remember to be flexible!! (so students remember not to be too rigid) DTLA-Directed Listening Thinking Activity: DTLA-Directed Listening Thinking Activity Purpose: The DLTA is used to engage students in text which is above their independent and/or instructional reading level. It is used to- determine the purpose for reading extract, comprehend, and assimilate information examine reading material based on the purpose for reading suspend judgments make decisions based on information gleaned from the reading material Rationale: As students develop strategies for actively engaging in text, they become increasingly independent in their own reading and are empowered to monitor and control their own reading behaviors to enhance their comprehension of the text they have read. DLTA, cont.: DLTA, cont. Procedure: The teacher reads the title to the student and asks what the story might be about. Record predictions on a chart or blackboard. Read 1st paragraph or the 1st section of the text and tell students that their predictions will be confirmed, rejected, or modified. Ask the students if they still think the same as they did earlier. Continue through the text-predicting, reading to students, and reacting to their predictions. After reading the story, the focus is on specific skill development and vocabulary. Students are invited to focus on words and phrases which puzzle or intrigue them. Strengths: Develops early critical reading skills. Helps students develop their own reading comprehension. Engages students in text which is too difficult for their current reading ability Weaknesses: Students who have already read or heard the text are not able to engage in strategy effectively. Classroom management can be problematic. DRTA-Directed Reading Thinking Activity: DRTA-Directed Reading Thinking Activity Purpose: This strategy is used to help students: determine the purpose for reading use prediction when reading text make decisions based on readings Rationale: As students develop more strategies for reading, the more independent readers they will become. Procedure: Direct students to read the title and brainstorm what the story might be about. Record the answers on the board. Read 1st section. Ask the students if their prediction was confirmed, rejected, or modified. Only the student that made the prediction may change their answers. DRTA, cont.: DRTA, cont. Procedure, cont: Repeat step 2 until the class has finished with the reading. Have the students justify their predictions by having them think aloud. Strengths: This helps develop critical reading skills. Also helps students develop reading comprehension. Weaknesses: Only useful if students have not read or heard the text being used. Classroom management may become a problem.