Published on May 22, 2020
1. TYPES OF TENSES 3 TYPES: Present Past Future 4 ASPECTS: Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
2. Simple Present Tense is used: When you are referring to habitual actions--actions that you always or never do When you are referring to unchanging truths When you are making general statements of fact
3. (habit) He always comes late to class. (unchanging truth) The sun rises in the east. (general statement of fact) They are friendly. Always Whenever Usually Sometimes Never Often Rarely Everyday Frequently Occasionally
4. When an activity happened at an unspecified time in the past (before the present) When an activity has been repeated several times before now When an activity was very recently completed before now When an activity is not completed in the past
5. (unspecified time before now) They have already seen that movie. (repeated activity before now) We have visited New York City many times. (an action has recently been completed before now) I have just eaten. (action not completed in the past) I have studied Spanish for many years.
6. Before So far Just Since Ever Already Never Yet Recently For
7. When an activity is in progress now at the moment of speaking When an activity began before now and continues into the future without stopping. When an activity is temporary. When an activity is developing and changing.
8. I am explaining something to the class right now. He is taking 16 credits this semester. She is understanding English more and more because she moved into the dorm.
9. Right now, at this moment This Year, week, month etc. As we speak Still
10. This tense is used to describe actions that have been continuously in progress before now. These actions are not completed. Example: I have been waiting here for the last two hours.
11. When an activity or situation began and ended at a particular time in the past--in other words, when an activity or situation is completed in the past To refer to past habits
12. (Completed action in the past) He came late for class yesterday. (Completed action in the past) We arrived three weeks ago. (Past habit) She always wrote a letter to her mother on Sunday night.
13. Last night, week, month, year, semester etc. Yesterday Ago
14. It can often be used interchangeably with the simple past because these tenses do not differ much in meaning. The past perfect tense refers to activities that happened before a specific time in the past. Example: He had visited her many times before she died.
15. This tense is used to refer to activities continuously in progress around a time in the past. Example: They were eating when the taxi arrived.
16. This tense is used when an activity was continuously in progress before a specific time in the past. Example: I had been thinking about her before she called.
17. To indicate that an activity or event will take place at a time in the future. Example: Next week, we will work on punctuation. Indicators: Tomorrow, next week, next year etc.
18. Sometimes the simple present tense or present continuous tense is used to express a future meaning. Usually these tenses are used when scheduled events are being discussed. I arrive I am arriving You arrive You are arriving S/he/it arrives S/he/it is arriving We arrive We are arriving They arrive They are arriving
19. The future perfect expresses the idea that an activity will occur before some future time. Example: She will have finished dinner before the game starts.
20. This tense is used to refer to activities that will be continuously in progress around some future time. Example: We will be flying over New York at noon tomorrow.
21. This tense is used to refer to activities that will be continuously in progress before a future time. Example: He will have been working for 3 hours before you arrive.
22. Present simple tense Use: • for permanent situations and states • for repeated/habitual actions • for permanent truths or law of nature • for timetables/programmes • for reviews/sports/ commentaries/dramatic narrative Present continuous tense Use: • for temporary situations • for actions happening at or around the moment of speaking • for repeated actions with “always” expressing annoyance or criticism • for fixed arrangements in the near future • for changing or developing situations
23. Present perfect Use: • for recently completed actions • for actions which happened at an unstated past time and are connected with the present • for personal experiences/changes which have happened • for emphasis on number Present perfect continuous Use: • for actions started in the past and continuing up to the present • for past actions of certain duration having visible results or effects in the present • for actions expressing anger, irritation, annoyance, explanation or criticism • for emphasis on duration (for, since, how long)
24. Past simple tense Use: past actions which happened one after the other past habit or state actions which happened at a definite past time although the time is not mentioned Past continuous tense Use: • for action in the middle of happening at a stated past time • for past action in progress interrupted by another past action. the shorter action is in the past simple and the longer in the past continuous. • for two or more simultaneous past actions
25. Past perfect Use: • for past action which occurred before another action or before a stated past time • for complete past action which had visible results in the past • the Past perfect is the past equivalent of the Present perfect Present perfect continuous Use: • for action continuing over a period up to a specific time in the past • for past action of certain duration which had visible results in the past • the Past perfect continuous is the past equivalent of the Present perfect continuous
26. Future simple (will) Use: • for decisions taken at the moment of speaking • for hopes, fears, threats, offers, promises, requests, comments, etc. • for actions or predictions which may (not) happen in the future • for thing we are not sure about or haven`t decided yet Be going to Use: • for actions intended to be performed in the near future • for planned actions or intentions • for evidence that something will definitely happen in the near future • for things we are sure about or we have already decided to do in the near future
27. Future perfect Use: • for actions which will be finished before a stated future time Future perfect continuous Use: for duration of an action which up to a certain time in the future. Future continuous Use: • for the actions in progress at a stated future time • for actions which are the result of a routine
28. 1.He ____ to the swimming pool everyday because he likes swimming.(goes/is going/has gone) 2.Please be quiet as the kids _______now.(sleep/have slept/are sleeping) 3.She can not go for watching the movie as she _____ her homework yet.(doesn’t do/isn’t doing/hasn’t done) 4.I burned my finger while I ______ breakfast.(was cooking/had cooked/had been cooking) 5.By the time I came back, Mike and Jane _____,so I couldn’t tell them about it.(were already leaving/had already left/had already been leaving) 6.He _____for twenty years when he finally quit smoking.(smoked/was smoking/had been smoking) 7.By the time you return, she _____for New York.(will be leaving/will have left/will leave) 8.By 2020, he _____ as the director of this company for thirty years.(will work/will be working/will have been working) 9.He ________ a brown leather jacket and scarf so you will recognize him.(will have worn/will be wearing/will have been wearing)