Published on January 14, 2008
Exploring American History: Exploring American History Unit V- The Nation Breaks Apart Chapter 16- The Civil War Price of Freedom- Americans at War Website: Price of Freedom- Americans at War Website The Civil War- 1861-1866 The War Begins: The War Begins The Big Idea Civil war broke out between the North and the South in 1861. Main Ideas Following the outbreak of war at Fort Sumter, Americans chose sides. The Union and the Confederacy prepared for war. Main Idea 1: Following the outbreak of war at Fort Sumter, Americans chose sides. : Main Idea 1: Following the outbreak of war at Fort Sumter, Americans chose sides. Seven southern states seceded as Lincoln took office. Lincoln refused to recognize secession and tried desperately to save the nation. Confederate officials began seizing federal-mint branches, arsenals, and military posts. Fall of Fort Sumter: Fall of Fort Sumter For Sumter was a Federal outpost in Charleston, South Carolina. Confederate forces asked for its surrender. Lincoln refused and sent ships with supplies. Confederate cannons began firing on April 12, 1861. Fort Sumter fell 34 hours later. The Civil War began. The War Begins: The War Begins Reaction of Lincoln’s Call: Reaction of Lincoln’s Call Lincoln declared the South was in rebellion and asked state governors for 75,000 militiamen; Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and states north of them rallied. Slave states of the Upper South—North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Arkansas—seceded. Border states—Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri—were slave states that did not join the Confederacy, but people were divided on the war. Western Virginia supported the Union and set up its own state government as West Virginia in 1863. Uniforms: Uniforms Northern and Southern Resources: The North Population of 22 million Some 22,000 miles of railroad track More developed economy, banking system, and currency Strategy—General Winfield Scott planned to blockade southern ports and to capture Mississippi River to divide the South. Northern and Southern Resources The South Strong military tradition that put many smart officers into battle Advantages of fighting on home soil – only had to defend itself until the North grew tired of fighting Strategy—tried to win foreign allies through cotton diplomacy: idea that Britain would support Confederacy because it needed the South’s cotton Strategy of the North: Strategy of the North Strategy of the South: Strategy of the South Main Idea 2:The Union and the Confederacy prepared for war.: Main Idea 2: The Union and the Confederacy prepared for war. Volunteer armies would fight the battles. Thousands of men joined the armies. Civilians helped those in uniform. Raised money, ran hospitals, served as nurses Sent supplies to troops Both armies faced shortages of clothing, food, and weapons. Volunteers had to learn the military basics of marching, shooting, and using bayonets. The War in the East: The War in the East The Big Idea Confederate and Union forces faced off in Virginia and at sea. Main Ideas Union and Confederate forces fought for control of the war in Virginia. The Battle of Antietam gave the North a slight advantage. The Confederacy attempted to break the Union naval blockade. Main Idea 1:Union and Confederate forces fought for control of the war in Virginia.: Main Idea 1: Union and Confederate forces fought for control of the war in Virginia. First major battle of Civil War in Virginia, in July 1861 Union army of 35,000 under General Irvin McDowell Confederate army of 22,000 under General Pierre G. T. Beauregard Clashed at Bull Run Creek near Manassas Additional 10,000 Confederates arrived Confederate troops under General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson held against Union advance Confederates counterattacked Union troops retreated Confederates won First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the First Battle of Manassas Bull Run – Manasas, Virginia: Bull Run – Manasas, Virginia More Battles in Virginia: More Battles in Virginia General George B. McClellan was placed in charge of 100,000 soldiers, called the Army of the Potomac. McClellan launched an effort to capture Richmond called the Peninsular Campaign. Stonewall Jackson launched an attack towards Washington, preventing Union reinforcements. Confederate army in Virginia was under the command of General Robert E. Lee. Lee attacked Union forces in series of clashes called Seven Days’ Battles and forced Union army to retreat in June 1862. Jackson’s troops stopped Pope’s army before it met up with the other Union army. The Second Battle of Bull Run, or Second Battle of Manassas, was fought in August 1862; Confederates again forced a Union retreat. Lincoln ordered General John Pope to march to Richmond. Robert E. Lee: Robert E. Lee Born into wealthy Virginia family in 1807 Graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point Fought in Mexican-American War Lincoln asked Lee to lead Union army at start of Civil War. Lee declined and resigned from the Union Army to become a Confederate general. Main Idea 2: The Battle of Antietam gave the North a slight advantage. : Main Idea 2: The Battle of Antietam gave the North a slight advantage. Confederate leaders wanted to follow Lee’s victories in Virginia with victory on northern soil. Lee’s Confederate troops and McClellan’s Union army met along Antietam Creek in Maryland on September 17, 1862. The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. history, with more than 12,000 Union and 13,000 Confederate casualties. Also called the Battle of Sharpsburg It was an important victory for the Union, stopping Lee’s northward advance. Antietam – 2:33: Antietam – 2:33 Main Idea 3: The Confederacy attempted to break the Union naval blockade.: Main Idea 3: The Confederacy attempted to break the Union naval blockade. Union navy controlled the sea and blockaded southern ports. The southern economy was hurt because the South was prevented from selling and receiving goods. Some small, fast ships got through blockade, but the number of ships entering southern ports was reduced from 6,000 to 800 a year. Clash of the Ironclads: Clash of the Ironclads The Confederacy turned to a new type of warship—ironclads, or ships heavily armored with iron. The Confederacy Captured Union ship Merrimack, turned it into ironclad, and renamed it the Virginia. Ironclads successfully attacked the wooden ships of the Union. Met by a Union ironclad, the Monitor, in battle near Hampton Roads, Virginia, in March 1862 and it forced the Confederates to withdraw Designed by John Ericsson Had a revolving gun tower and thick plating The Monitor’s success saved the Union fleet and continued the blockade. U.S.S. Monitor: U.S.S. Monitor The War in the West: The War in the West The Big Idea Fighting in the Civil War spread to the western United States. Main Ideas Union strategy in the West centered on control of the Mississippi River. Confederate and Union troops struggled for dominance in the Far West. Main Idea 1:Union strategy in the West centered on control of the Mississippi River.: Main Idea 1: Union strategy in the West centered on control of the Mississippi River. Ulysses S. Grant was commander of Union forces in West Bold and restless, he wanted to attack. Western campaign focused on taking control of Mississippi River. Would cut off eastern part of Confederacy from food sources in West Union could use bases along the Mississippi to attack communication and transportation networks. Grant’s Army of Tennessee captured Confederate forts on Tennessee and Cumberland rivers in February 1862. Both sides claimed victory in bloody two-day Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, but Grant’s forces had driven Confederates back into Mississippi. Shiloh: Shiloh The Fall of New Orleans: The Fall of New Orleans U.S. Navy moved upriver to meet Grant, who was moving down the Mississippi. First obstacle was the port of New Orleans—largest Confederate city and gateway to the Mississippi. Fleet under Admiral David Farragut captured New Orleans in April 1862. He then took Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Natchez, Mississippi. Siege of Vicksburg: Siege of Vicksburg Farragut ordered surrender of strategic Vicksburg, Mississippi, in May 1863. Location on 200-foot-high cliffs above the Mississippi made invasion nearly impossible. Grant decided to starve the city into surrender; began Siege of Vicksburg in mid-May. Facing starvation, city surrendered on July 4, 1863. Vicksburg: Vicksburg Main Idea 2: Confederate and Union troops struggled for dominance in the Far West. : Main Idea 2: Confederate and Union troops struggled for dominance in the Far West. Union halted attempts by Confederate armies to control lands west of the Mississippi in Colorado and Arizona in 1861. Confederates failed to take border state of Missouri, losing Battle of Pea Ridge in 1862. Cherokee Native Americans aided the Confederates, hoping that they would give them greater freedom. Pro-Confederate forces remained active in region throughout the war, forcing Union commanders to keep troops in area. Daily Life during the War: Daily Life during the War The Big Idea The lives of many Americans were affected by the Civil War. Main Ideas The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederate states. African Americans participated in the war in a variety of ways. President Lincoln faced opposition to the war. Life was difficult for soldiers and civilians alike. Main Idea 1:The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederate states. : Main Idea 1: The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederate states. Millions of enslaved African Americans were at the heart of the nation’s bloody struggle. Abolitionists wanted Lincoln to free the slaves. Lincoln found emancipation, or freeing of slaves, a difficult issue. Did not believe he had constitutional power Worried about the effects Emancipation Proclamation: Emancipation Proclamation Proclamation and Reaction: Emancipation Proclamation Democratic Party opposed Abolitionists said war was pointless without freedom for African Americans. Some predicted it would anger voters. On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves only in areas controlled by Confederacy, effective January 1, 1863. Proclamation and Reaction Reaction African Americans gave thanks. Abolitionists rejoiced. Some noted that system of slavery still existed. Encouraged many enslaved African Americans to escape when Union troops came near. Loss of slaves crippled the South’s ability to wage war. Main Idea 2:African Americans participated in the war in a variety of ways.: Main Idea 2: African Americans participated in the war in a variety of ways. African Americans volunteered to fight. The War Department gave contrabands, or escaped slaves, the right to join the army in South Carolina. The mainly African American 54th Massachusetts Infantry was celebrated for its bravery. About 180,000 African Americans served with the Union army. Main Idea 3:President Lincoln faced opposition to the war.: Copperheads Northern Draft Copperheads were northern Democrats who began speaking against the war. Many were midwesterners who sympathized with the South and opposed abolition. Lincoln suspended habeas corpus, or protection against unlawful imprisonment, to jail the enemies of the Union. Critics erupted when Congress approved the draft, or forced military service. For $300, men could buy their way out of service. For unskilled workers, this was a year’s wage. Bloody rioting broke out in New York, killing 100 people. Main Idea 3: President Lincoln faced opposition to the war. Main Idea 4:Life was difficult for soldiers and civilians alike. : Main Idea 4: Life was difficult for soldiers and civilians alike. Civil War armies fought in ancient battlefield formations that produced massive casualties. Endless rows of troops fired directly at one another. Many men died to gain every inch of ground. Doctors and nurses saved many lives. They did not have medicines to stop infections. The biggest killer in the war was disease, such as typhoid, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. Military prisoners on both sides lived in misery. They had little shelter, food, or clothing. Starvation and disease killed thousands. Soldiers Life: Soldiers Life Life as a Civilian : Life as a Civilian The war effort involved all levels of society. Women and males too young or too old for military service worked in factories and farms. Women were the backbone of civilian life. On farms, they performed daily chores usually done by men. Union volunteer Clara Barton organized the collection of medicine and supplies for delivery to the battlefield. In the South, Sally Louisa Tompkins established a small hospital that became a major army hospital. The Tide of War Turns: The Tide of War Turns The Big Idea Union victories in 1863, 1864, and 1865 ended the Civil War. Main Ideas The Union tried to divide the Confederate Army at Fredericksburg, but the attempt failed. The Battle of Gettysburg in 1863 was a major turning point in the war. During 1864, Union campaigns in the East and South dealt crippling blows to the Confederacy. Union troops forced the South to surrender in 1865, ending the Civil War. Main Idea 1: The Union tried to divide the Confederate Army at Fredericksburg, but the attempt failed.: Main Idea 1: The Union tried to divide the Confederate Army at Fredericksburg, but the attempt failed. Ambrose Attacks General Ambrose E. Burnside sent to replace McClellan as leader of Army of the Potomac. Strategy: attack Richmond by way of Fredericksburg Burnside caught Lee by surprise but delays left Lee enough time to organize and entrench Confederate forces. The Union lost the battle and suffered heavy casualties. Hooker Attacks General Joseph Hooker sent to replace Ambrose as leader of Army of the Potomac. Strategy: outflank the Confederate army at Fredericksburg Hooker instead hesitated and took a defensive position at Chancellorsville where Union forces were overwhelmed by both Lee and Stonewall Jackson. The Confederates win a major victory. Fredricksburg: Fredricksburg Main Idea 2: The Battle of Gettysburg in 1863 was a major turning point in the war.: Main Idea 2: The Battle of Gettysburg in 1863 was a major turning point in the war. Largest and bloodiest battle of Civil War More than 51,000 soldiers were killed, wounded, captured, or went missing in three days. It was an important victory for the Union because it stopped Lee’s plan of invading the North. Battle of Gettysburg: First Day Lee’s forces were gathered at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on July 1, 1863. Ran into Union forces under General George G. Meade, beginning the Battle of Gettysburg Union took up defensive positions Second Day Lee ordered attack on Union troops on Little Round Top. Both sides fought viciously for control. Union forces held off Confederates. Battle of Gettysburg Third Day Lee planned attack on center of Union line. General George Pickett led 15,000 men in Pickett’s Charge, a failed attack on Cemetery Ridge. Lee began planning retreat to Virginia. Gettysburg: Gettysburg Aftermath of Gettysburg: Turning Point Gettysburg Address Gettysburg was turning point of war—Lee would never again attack in the North. Some 23,000 Union and 28,000 Confederate casualties Victory came the day before the Union capture of Vicksburg. Britain and France refused to aid South after Gettysburg. Lincoln gave speech called Gettysburg Address at dedication of the Gettysburg battlefield cemetery. He praised bravery of Union soldiers and renewed commitment to winning the war. Aftermath of Gettysburg Main Idea 3:During 1864, Union campaigns in the East and South dealt crippling blows to the Confederacy.: Main Idea 3: During 1864, Union campaigns in the East and South dealt crippling blows to the Confederacy. Lincoln was impressed with Grant’s victories; gave him command of Union army. Grant forced Lee to fight series of battles in Virginia that stretched Confederate soldiers and supplies to limit. Wilderness Campaign: series of battles designed to capture Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, in 1864. Grant kept moving toward Richmond but suffered huge casualties. Failure to capture Richmond by election of 1864 distressed Lincoln. Sherman Strikes the South: Sherman Strikes the South Lincoln needed victory for Union army to help him win reelection in 1864. General William Tecumseh Sherman’s campaign to destroy South’s railroads and industries provided Lincoln his victory. Sherman’s 100,000 troops marched south from Tennessee in spring of 1864 to capture Atlanta, Georgia, in September, and Savannah in December. Sherman practiced total war, destroying civilian and economic resources, in the hope of ruining the South’s economy and ending its ability to fight. He hoped this would speed the end of the war. Main Idea 4: Union troops forced the South to surrender in 1865, ending the Civil War. : Main Idea 4: Union troops forced the South to surrender in 1865, ending the Civil War. Grant broke through Confederate defenses at Petersburg, Virginia, and Lee retreated to Richmond on April 2, 1865. Grant surrounded Lee’s army. Lee surrendered to Grant at the small town of Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, on April 9, 1865. Petersburg and Richmond: Petersburg and Richmond Ending the War: Ending the War Effects of the War : Effects of the War Civil War had deep and long lasting effects. Almost 620,000 Americans killed The South’s defeat ended slavery. Majority of former slaves had no homes or jobs. Southern economy was in ruins. Tremendous amount of hostility remained. Many questioned how the United States could be united again. Slide66: Click window above to start playing.