UNTITLED

Information about UNTITLED

Published on August 7, 2007

Author: Haggrid

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  Date: 01:01:2006 South Asia: development and Deprivation South Asia: development and Deprivation:  South Asia: development and Deprivation 1. With about 1.4 billion population, (about 23% of the world population) South Asia is one of the most densely populated regions of the world Out of seven countries , Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are bigger and Maldives and Bhutan are smaller Despite the differences and variations, it is a more homogeneous region (culturally, socially and levels of patterns of development) Slide3:  2. One of the fastest growing regions in the world after trade liberalisation since 1080’s ( in some countries since 1990s) Average growth of GDP in the 19990’s was close to 6%. Indicators of human development have also shown some improvement, ( education,health etc.) Slide4:  3. However fruits of growth largely cornered by upper strata; several groups further marginalised. Considerable increase in inter group inequality as well as inter regional Slide5:  Remains one of the most vulnerable regions in the world in terms of human development (except Sri Lanka and Maldives About 40% below poverty ( less than one dollar per day); half of the world poor High levels of illiteracy (45%), women (55%) Poor health (infant mortality – 60- 70 per thousand; high levels of maternal death and child malnutrition 5:  5 Larger % of the population dependant on low productive informal sector (including agriculture (- close to 90% in most of the countries. In recent years decline in formal employment and considerable rise in informal employment Informal sector’s coverage of social security very small Overall, 10% of the workers (including formal sector) covered under social security (protective ones). Conceptualising Social Protection /Social Security :  Conceptualising Social Protection /Social Security Social protection (SP) and social security (SS) used interchangeably in the paper – has taken a larger and holistic view of the issue covering not only workers, but the entire population. Broader definition of Social protection and Social security appropriate for developing countries may be: Any collective and public measures and activities which help the population in ( particularly the poor) in meeting their basic needs (such as adequate food and nutrition, health care, shelter and sanitation education etc.) as well as protecting them from contingencies (such as disability, death unemployment and old age) So as to maintain a living consistent with social norms. Slide8:  The former are called promotional measures (basic social security to take care of deficiency) and the latter protective (contingent social security to take care of the adversity) Need of extending this definition by including participation in socio-political – cultural spheres so as to have a sense of citizenship Major Social Security Arragment in South Asia :  Major Social Security Arragment in South Asia Of the 5 larger countries, Sri Lanka best covered by SS followed by Bangladesh and India. Somewhat lower coverage and Nepal least. 1. In Bangladesh, several measures during last two decades in the areas of education, health, old age security, food security, micro finance. - Not many protective measures but old age and assistance for widow and destitute important measures. Impact of all these measures in improving HD impressive, but still covers very small particularly that of protective ones. 2. In India several measures, both protective and promotional. Important ones are Several employment and PAP, most important of which are SGRY and NREGS - Universal PDS ICDS SSA and Mid-Day Meal Scheme Housing Scheme National Social Assistance Programme Welfare Boards SHG and Micro Finance 3. Very poor coverage of protective measures, only for transport workers Budgetary support for education and health small, although has risen recently Micro Finance, but cover is limited As a whole very low levels of promotional land protective measures 4:  4 In Pakistan, Major programs are - Government support to anti-poverty programs - Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund - Programs of income generation, employment creation through public works, drought and emergency relief - Food Security Program to mitigate the adverse impact of rise in food prices - Girls' Education (stipend for poor students) - Other measures include Workers' Welfare Fund, Employees Old age Benefit Zakat is an important intervention 5. Sri Lanka best covered. Universal primary education and public health coverage High budgetary support for human development Strong Micro finance ( 10% population covered) Areas of concern are income shocks to the poor, natural disaster (IV) Identifying Effective Interventions:  (IV) Identifying Effective Interventions 1. Overall, very low coverage of protective SS - There are several promotional measures taken in recent years, but still low coverage, but major concern is poor and mistargeting because of poor governance and weak delivery mechanism . Slide12:  2. However, there are some interventions which have worked well. Some of them worth mentioning are: Tamilnadu (India) Nutrition Improvement Program - a successful program in terms of enhancement of status of children and attainment in terms of higher enrolment, retention and completion of primary schooling Female Secondary School Assistance Project, Bangladesh: Instituted since 1990s, covering 1.5 million school girls, has helped in the higher education of girls, both in public and private school, supplemented with Female Secondary Stipend Programme Micro health Insurance Scheme (Gonoshasthya Kendra), Bangladesh and Old Age Security and Assistance for destitute Women, Bangladesh Employment Security - NREGS, India which is a legally guaranteed universal program of 100 days of work in a year Towards formality a formulating a protective social security legislation covering minimum social security measures for low income workers in informal sector in India Access to financial resources - the phenomenal success of Bangladesh, and modest success in other countries Social Security and Women: Apart from Micro finance and SHGs, many schemes have empowered women. In India , reservation of seats in local government for women: success of SEWA and WWF are noteworthy (V) Major Concerns :  (V) Major Concerns Low coverage of protective social security measures Although enhanced expenditure on promotional social security, but spending still low; effectiveness very weak Major area of concern are budgetary constraints of the government and poor governance Neglected areas in social security initiatives Migrant workers Poor working and living conditions of workers in the informal sector Housing and sanitation issues Organisation of the poor Health issues of mothers and children Issues relating to dignity and citizenship

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