Published on May 8, 2008
Kyoto and Geneva: Linkage of the Climate Change Regime and the Trade RegimeJeffrey Frankel, Harvard University: Kyoto and Geneva: Linkage of the Climate Change Regime and the Trade Regime Jeffrey Frankel, Harvard University “Broadening Climate Discussion: The Linkage of Climate Change to Other Policy Areas” conference organized by FEEM/MIT Venice, Italy, June 2004 Symmetric fears: Symmetric fears Free traders fear that talk about environmental protection will be used as an excuse by some economic sectors to gain protection for themselves against competition from abroad. Environmentalists fear that talk about free trade will be used as an excuse to give inadequate weight to environmental goals and excessive weight to maximization of GDP. Is trade itself good or badfor the environment, in theory?: Is trade itself good or bad for the environment, in theory? Is trade itself good or badfor the environment, statistically?Source: Frankel and Rose, R.E.Stat., 2004: Is trade itself good or bad for the environment, statistically? Source: Frankel and Rose, R.E.Stat., 2004 SO2 concentrations tend to fall with openness: SO2 concentrations tend to fall with openness CO2 emissions/cap tend, if anything, to rise with openness: CO2 emissions/cap tend, if anything, to rise with openness Mutual respect: Mutual respect Drafters in Kyoto and Geneva have shown more consideration for each other than the rank & file of environmentalists and free traders. The Kyoto Protocol text: Parties should “strive to implement policies and measures...in such a way as to minimize adverse effects..on international trade...” ; FCCC features similar language WTO regime is equally solicitous of environment: Article XX allows exceptions for health & conservation Preamble to 1995 Marakesh Agreement establishing WTO seeks “to protect and preserve the environment;” 2001 Doha Communique starting new round of negotiations: “the aims of ... open and non-discriminatory trading system, and acting for the protection of the environment ... must be mutually supportive.”. 3 economic/environmental win-win examples: 3 economic/environmental win-win examples Russia announced May 21 it would ratify the Kyoto Protocol as a quid pro quo for EU support of its application to accede to WTO Multilateral liberalization of capital equipment and services used in environmental sector USG proposal in 2003 for the Doha round Precedent: end of restrictive tariffs & quotas on Japanese auto imports benefited both consumer pocketbook and air quality A ban on subsidies to fossil fuels would achieve both the enviro goal of reducing carbon emissions and the economists’ goal of reducing an economic distortion and deficit spending. Kyoto Protocol includes supportive language A ban on fossil fuel subsidies would be a great initiative for G-8 & World Bank Seattle & Geneva: WTO protests.Why did they march together in 1999?: Seattle & Geneva: WTO protests. Why did they march together in 1999? Typical WTO panel cases: Typical WTO panel cases Tariffs or other measures that discriminate against producers in some trading partners, either in favor of other trading partners (potential violation of MFN principle of Article I) or in favor of “like products” from domestic producers (potential violation of national treatment provision of Article III). If targeted country files a WTO complaint alleging such a violation, the question is then whether the measure in question is permissible under Article XX Which allows for exceptions to the non-discrimination principles for environmental reasons, provided that the measures in question are not “a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination” or a “disguised restriction on international trade.” The true meaning of WTO panel decision on shrimp-turtle case, 1998: The true meaning of WTO panel decision on shrimp-turtle case, 1998 New ruling that environmental measures can target, not only exported products (Article XX), but also partners’ Processes and Production Methods (PPMs) Subject, as always, to non-discrimination (Articles I and III) US was able to proceed to protect turtles, without discrimination against Asian fishermen Enviromentalists have failed to notice/consolidate the PPM precedent. Areas of potential conflict between Kyoto Protocol and WTODisclaimer: I am neither an expert in this area nor a lawyer. Who actually knows something about this subject?: Areas of potential conflict between Kyoto Protocol and WTO Disclaimer: I am neither an expert in this area nor a lawyer. Who actually knows something about this subject? Thomas Brewer Steven Charnovitz Gary Sampson Jacob Werksman International tradein emission permits : International trade in emission permits Another win-win situation that benefits both the environment and economy. Such “flexibility mechanisms” are why I support the Kyoto Protocol. In any case, it seems to me that WTO does not apply: emission permits are neither goods nor services. No conflict. Trade controls or sanctions: Trade controls or sanctions Trade controls (on relevant sectors) more likely ok than sanctions (on unrelated trade) Multilateral more likely ok than unilateral To punish non-members Kyoto Protocol did not incorporate it. So moot for now. May come up in future rounds. Undercuts legality of unilateral attempts. To enforce compliance Seems unlikely, given Lots of scope to stretch numbers on sinks, CDM, JI … US and others not in at all, so why punish members? Precedent of Montreal Protocol on stratospheric ozone depletion: Precedent of Montreal Protocol on stratospheric ozone depletion Trade controls had two motivations: (1) to encourage countries to join, and (2) if major countries had remained outside, would have minimized leakage, the migration of production of banned substances to nonparticipating countries In the event (1) worked, so (2) not needed No reason why Kyoto Protocol could not have done the same. What about PPMs? Can measures be directed against CO2 emissions in other countries, as embodied in electricity, or in goods produced with it?: What about PPMs? Can measures be directed against CO2 emissions in other countries, as embodied in electricity, or in goods produced with it? I don’t see why not PPM principle already established (turtles) Especially for global externality -- CO2 or CFCs Leakage to non-members could negate goal of KP Paradoxically, the need to keep out coal-generated electricity or aluminum from non-members > need to keep out coal itself But enviros need to build on PPM precedent hard to determine carbon content of manufactures. KP missed chance for multilateral trade controls Sort of case that is likely to come up: : Sort of case that is likely to come up: A country’s border tax adjustments to offset effects of specific domestic GHG taxes on competitiveness of its industry vis-à-vis foreigners. Legitimate when applied against coal itself, or carbon content of electricity (tho it’s a PPM), or perhaps even carbon/energy content of manufactures Not when applied, solely as punishment for free riding, against unrelated products of a non-member, or Clean inputs, e.g., a ban on US turbines used for CDM projects Unless perhaps KP members multilaterally agree on such rules for screening CDM credits Potential conflicts with other aspects of WTO regime: Potential conflicts with other aspects of WTO regime Efficiency standards as part of a country’s program to reduce emissions, e.g., fuel standards for autos Permissible under WTO, even if with side-effect of benefiting, e.g., Japanese products over EU or US exports, provided no needless discrimination. But there is also a more restrictive Technical Barriers to Trade agreement, favoring widely accepted international standards. Potential conflicts with other aspects of WTO regime, cont.: Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures : Potential conflicts with other aspects of WTO regime, cont.: Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures Possible conflicts when Kyoto Parties: exempt particular favored industries from an energy tax, or give out domestic emission permits in a non-neutral way, or reward their companies with credits for CDM and JI projects Potential conflicts with other aspects of WTO regime, cont.: Agreement on Agriculture: Potential conflicts with other aspects of WTO regime, cont.: Agreement on Agriculture It is anticipated that the Doha Round, if it is truly successful, would involve limits on massive agricultural subsidies. Payments under environmental programs should be “in the green box”: exempt from ban on subsidies. Subsidies for carbon sequestration in forestry okay or for the reduction of methane emissions in agriculture but it seems to me that exemptions for handouts to favored sectors such as ethanol subsidies should not be allowed unless found scientifically to be environmentally beneficial in reality rather than in name alone. Potential conflicts with other aspects of WTO regime, cont.: Labeling requirements: Potential conflicts with other aspects of WTO regime, cont.: Labeling requirements TBT agreement (Technical Barriers to Trade) clearly allows non-discriminatory labeling, e.g., according to energy efficiency. But WTO law could be interpreted as not allowing a government to require labels specifying greenhouse gas content in the production process. I am a believer in letting consumers decide some issues with the aid of eco-labeling, rather than leaving no options in between voting and window-breaking for people who want to express their views. There is always the risk that labeling is politically manipulated. But it is less intrusive than import restrictions. (EU labeling of GMOs, while perhaps without adequate scientific foundation, is a better way of venting strong European feeling on the subject than outright bans on imports from the US.) It would be desirable for the WTO to establish rules for labeling. Conclusion: some priorities: Conclusion: some priorities In Kyoto Protocol -- top priority should be to facilitate a uniform approach to taxation of energy/GHGs, particularly re border adjustments for exports and imports. The WTO -- should renew now-expired Subsidies Agreement provision, originally negotiated in the Uruguay Round, that allowed subsidies for adaptation of facilities to new environmental regulations In the WTO, or G7/World Bank -- negotiations to ban subsidies of fossil fuels would be one excellent win-win initiative. In the Doha Round -- negotiations to liberalize trade in climate-friendly goods and services would be another. In these and other ways, the trade and climate regimes can be made to work in harmony.