Published on June 19, 2007
Photometric Survey for Asynchronous Binary Asteroids : Photometric Survey for Asynchronous Binary Asteroids Petr Pravec Astronomical Institute AS CR, Ondřejov Presented at MACE 2006 in Vienna, Austria 2006 May 14 Slide2: There is an abundant population of small binary asteroids from near-Earth orbits to the main belt .... Studied with the photometric (lightcurve) technique: 1994-2004: NEA binary population studied. 2004- : The survey extended to the MB ... BinAstPhotSurvey: BinAstPhotSurvey Small Asynchronous binaries BinAstPhotSurvey (Photometric Survey for Asynchronous Binary Asteroids). A consortium of several experienced asteroid photometric stations in Europe, USA, Canada and Australia. See page and references therein. The key element of the Survey is a collaboration of the great asteroid photometrists: D. Pray (Carbuncle Hill), B. Warner (PDO), D. Higgins (Hunters Hill), P. Kusnirak (Ondrejov), A. Galad et al. (Modra), W. Cooney et al. (SRO), V. Reddy and R. Dyvig (Badlands), P. Brown et al. (Elginfield), Yu. Krugly et al. (Kharkiv), R. Stephens (GMARS), R. Koff (Antelope Hills), N. Gaftonyuk (Simeiz), and others. Since December 2004 – covered 100+ asteroids with a proper strategy for detection of binaries and modeling of selection effects. Found 10+ binaries. Ryan et al., 2004 (Vestoids) Radar (limited to studies of NEAs) Small Synchronous binaries - Behrend et al., 2006; and others Large/wide binaries – studied by AO technique, direct imaging (HST) What is an Asynchronous Binary Asteroid: What is an Asynchronous Binary Asteroid System of two bodies with at least one of them rotating non-synchronously with the orbital motion. Showing two (or three) lightcurve components that are linearly additive. The technique .... Deconvolution of async binary asteroid LC: Deconvolution of async binary asteroid LC NEA binary population: NEA binary population Studied 1994-2004 (Pravec et al. 2006, Icarus 181, 63-93, and references therein) Fraction of NEA binaries - selection effects had to be modeled: Fraction of NEA binaries - selection effects had to be modeled Biases for Satellites larger than ~0.18 Dprim Closer systems (shorter Porb) Resulting mean detection probability within the lightcurve survey for NEA binaries (Dprimandgt;0.3 km, Dsec/Dprim0.18): 39% NEA binary population: NEA binary population 15 4 % of NEAs are binary NEA binaries characteristics (1): NEA binaries characteristics (1) Main characteristics (for a bulk of the population): Primaries fast rotating, spheroidal Secondaries mostly synchronous (Psec = Porb; exceptions in wider systems) diverse shapes (eq. axial ratio range from 1:1 to 2:1) Dsec/Dprim 0.5 The characteristics hold for small binaries in MB+MC orbits as well. NEA binaries – fast primary spins: NEA binaries – fast primary spins NEA binaries – spheroidal primary shapes: NEA binaries – spheroidal primary shapes NEA binaries – secondary sizes: NEA binaries – secondary sizes NEA binaries characteristics (2): NEA binaries characteristics (2) Total specific angular momentum Primary is a fast rotator, additional angular momentum contained in the orbital motion (and secondary’s rotation). Ltot is very close to, but not generally exceeding, the critical limit for a single body (Ltot ~ Lcrit) Suggests that NEA binaries formed at the critical spin rate little or no angular momentum has been added after the binary is formed. If precursors spun-up to fission by YORP, the increase in angular momentum must be *shut off* after the binary is formed. A study of Ltot on a larger sample (NEA+MC+MB binaries) suggests that Ltot is close to Lcrit over the whole range of heliocentric distances .... Binary population from NEAs to inner MBAs: Binary population from NEAs to inner MBAs Small NEA+MC+MB binaries studied 2004- Small Asynchronous binaries – BinAstPhotSurvey; also Ryan et al., 2004 Small Synchronous binaries - Behrend et al., 2006; and others Large/wide binaries – studied by AO technique, direct imaging (HST) Slide15: The population of small asynchronous binary asteroids is not confined to near-Earth orbits only .... Small binaries in the Main Belt and Mars-crossing orbits are similar in most characteristics to NEA binaries. It suggests common origin/evolution mechanisms .... Characteristics of binaries – multiparameter space: Characteristics of binaries – multiparameter space Models studied. Data have to be displayed in 2-D projections. Size ratio vs primary size: Size ratio vs primary size Primary spin vs size: Primary spin vs size Total Angular Momentum: Total Angular Momentum αL = Ltot/Lcrit.sp. where Ltot is a total angular momentum of the system, Lcrit is angular momentum of an equivalent (i.e., the same total mass and volume), critically spinning sphere. A 'rubble pile' with only compressive strength can resist rotational disruption up to values of αL ~ 1.3 (Harris and Pravec, in prep.) Systems originating from critically spinning 'rubble piles' are expected to have αL between 1.0 and 1.3, if no angular momentum was added or removed since creation of the system. Angular momentum ratio vs size: Angular momentum ratio vs size Binary characteristics- concluding remarks: Binary characteristics - concluding remarks The population of small binaries (Dp andlt;= 10 km) with Ltot~Lcrit extends from near-Earth to (at least) inner main belt. Suggests that planetary encounters are *not* the primary cause of their formation. If binaries were created by a spin-up mechanism, it must be 'shut off' after creation of the binary; no significant amount of angular momentum was added after creation. Is a 'gap' in Ds /Dp between 0.5 and 0.8 real or just a selection effect? (May there be tidally evolved systems, e.g., fully synchronous, or distant secondaries? Such would be difficult to resolve with the current techniques.) BinAstPhotSurvey- Opportunity for experienced photometrists: BinAstPhotSurvey - Opportunity for experienced photometrists Our consortium is open to photometrists able to keep a strategy of the Survey BinAstPhotSurvey- Opportunity for experienced photometrists: BinAstPhotSurvey - Opportunity for experienced photometrists Interested to study asynchronous binaries? We welcome you to join us, if You are an experienced asteroid photometrist. You can measure asteroids with Vandgt;15 with errors ≤ 0.03 mag. You can identify/eliminate error sources (e.g., interferring background stars) down to a level of 0.01 mag. You can take long series or linked data. You can reduce data fast (normally within 24 h since acquisition) so that observational programs on your and other collaborating stations within the Survey may be updated promptly. You will want to learn more on the strategy of the Survey in a course of your collaborative work within the consortium. Following the strategy of the Survey is necessary to get a high efficiency and reproducibility of the observations within the Survey. Unrecognized (uneliminated) background stars affect measurements (1): Unrecognized (uneliminated) background stars affect measurements (1) Unrecognized (uneliminated) background stars affect measurements (2): Unrecognized (uneliminated) background stars affect measurements (2) High-quality Flatfield – another *must* for a moving target: High-quality Flatfield – another *must* for a moving target Targeted asteroid (or comparison stars, if tracked on the asteroid) drift over the FOV during night. Flatfield imperfections (e.g., a slope in the flatfield) may cause observational artifacts in the measurements. Elimination of stray light is quite necessary as well – it cannot be flatfielded in a normal way. Those problems occur at larger, professional telescopes as well. THE END: THE END Thank you!