Information about VIRTUAL REALITY

Published on February 20, 2009

Author: aSGuest13482



VIRTUAL REALITY : VIRTUAL REALITY Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computer-simulated environment. Most virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones. Some advanced and experimental systems have included limited tactile information, known as force feedback. Users can interact with a virtual environment either through the use of standard input devices such as a keyboard and mouse, or through multimodal devices such as a wired glove, the Polhemus boom arm, and/or omnidirectional treadmill. Virtual Reality (contd.) : Virtual Reality (contd.) The simulated environment can be similar to the real world, for example, simulations for pilot or combat training, or it can differ significantly from reality, as in VR games. In practice, it is currently very difficult to create a high-fidelity virtual reality experience, due largely to technical limitations on processing power, image resolution and communication bandwidth. However, those limitations are expected to eventually be overcome as processor, imaging and data communication technologies become more powerful and cost-effective over time. Definitions : Definitions “A Computer-Generated, 3D Spatial Environment in Which Users Can Participate in Real-time.” Michael Capps, Naval Postgraduate School Virtual Environments Can Be: Fully immersive, encompassing worlds Augmentations (overlay) to the real world “Through the Window” worlds (non-immersive) Terms of Virtual Reality : Terms of Virtual Reality Virtual reality Artificial reality Computer generated environment Computer simulated environment Synthetic environment Spatial immersion Cyberspace Virtual worlds Virtual presence Related Technologies : Related Technologies Vehicle/Flight Simulators “Interactive 3D Computer Graphics” (I3D) CAD Computer animation/special effects PC/Video Games Interactive Images (e.g., QuickTime VR) Augmented Reality Combined real world and computer generated environment Video AR: real world video with generated overlay See-Through AR: generated display is semi-transparent Tele-Presence Teleconferencing Remote robotic control Collaborative systems Mixed Reality : Mixed Reality “Applying Mixed Reality to Entertainment” Whirlwind: First CG System : Whirlwind: First CG System 1949: First CG on Whirlwind Computer at MIT (Bouncing Ball) Whirlwind development began in 1945 System was first demonstrated on April 20th, 1951 First digital computer capable of displaying real time text and graphics on a video terminal (large oscilloscope screen) 1962: Sensorama : 1962: Sensorama Morton Helig, 1950s: Designed and patented 'the experience theatre' - 180 degree horizontal and 155 degree vertical. 30 speakers, smell, wind, seats that moved. Couldn't get funding, so created in 1962 the Sensorama The Sensorama was an arcade setup with a vibrating motorcycle seat and handlebars and two 35mm projectors for stereo and wind and aromas and stereo sound as viewer moved through prerecorded experiences. 1965: Ivan Sutherland (University of Utah) : 1965: Ivan Sutherland (University of Utah) 1963: Sketchpad: First interactive CG system with light pen 1965: Sutherland proposes the 'ultimate display': "The ultimate display would, of course, be a room within which the computer can control the existence of matter. ... With appropriate programming such a display could literally be the Wonderland into which Alice walked" 1968: created the first Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality (AR) Head Mounted Display (HMD) system: The Sword of Damocles Real-time computer generated display of wireframe cube with head tracking projected onto half-silvered mirrors so the cube floats in front of the user in the room. Two CRTs mounted by the users head along with other hardware suspended from the ceiling (heavy!) by a mechanical arm. VR Displays : VR Displays 1965: First commercial vector display (IBM, $100K) 1967: First haptic display: GROPE project (Brooks, UNC) UNC uses a ceiling mounted ARM (Argonne remote manipulator) to test receptor sites for a drug molecule. The researcher, in virtual reality, grasps the drug molecule, and holds it up to potential receptor sites. Good receptor sites attract the drug, while poor ones repel it. Using a force feedback system, scientists can easily feel where the drug can and should go. Rendering Techniques : Rendering Techniques 1968: Ray casting principle (Arthur Appel) 1971: Raster Scan Principle 1971: Gouraud Shading (Henri Gouraud; method based on Lambertian diffuse lighting model) 1974: Texture Mapping (Edwin Catmull) 1975: Phong Shading (shading model developed by Bui Tuong Phong, University of Utah) 1979: Ray Tracing (Turner Whitted) 1984: Radiosity (Goral, Torrance, Greenberg, Battaile; Cornell University) Flat shading Gouraud shading Phong shading Tracking : Tracking 1977: First instrumented glove (Sandin & Sayre) 1979: Polhemus Tracking System (Raab et al.) 1985 - Jaron Lanier & VPL research First company focused on VR products Sold datagloves in 1985 and eyephones in 1988 1986: Ascension Technologies founded from former Polhemus employees. Still a leading manufacturer of electromagnetic tracking systems. Polhemus Fastrak Virtual Environments : Virtual Environments 1987: British Aerospace Virtual Cockpit 1989: NASA VIEW System (Virtual Interface Environment Workstation) First complete VR system Project started in the early 80’s General-purpose, multi-sensory, personal simulator and telepresence device Configuration included head and hand tracking, wide field-of-view stereo head-mounted displays, speech recognition, 3D audio output and a tracked and instrumented glove 1989: Fake Space Labs: Development of the BOOM 1992: Virtual Portal (M. Deering, Sun Microsystems) 1992: CAVE: Cave Automated Virtual Environment (Carolina Cruz Neira et. al., University of Chicago) VIEW CAVE Virtual Portal The 90s : The 90s 1993: Silicon Graphics Reality Engine: Hardware-supported Gouraud shading, texture mapping, Z-buffering, anti-aliasing, 200,000 polygons/sec 1993: OpenGL standard 1993: PHANToM Haptic Device (T. Massie, K. Salisbury) 1996: Silicon Graphics Infinite Reality (5M polygons/sec) 1998: Silicon Graphics Infinite Reality2 (13M polygons/sec) 1998: First 6-wall CAVE by TAN at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm 1999: ARToolKit (Hirokazo Kato, HITLab, UW) Phantom ARToolKit Most Recent Developments : Most Recent Developments 2002: DLP/LCD projectors time sequential (active) stereo possible with DLP technology 2002: optical tracking in VR systems (eg, Vicon, ART) Optical Tracking System (Vicon) 2002: PC graphics & PC clusters (NVIDIA FX4000: 130M polygons/sec) Calit2 has cluster of 34 PCs with NVIDIA 7900 graphics cards Virtual Reality Applications Today : Virtual Reality Applications Today Research Development Daily Use Medicine Driving and Flight Simulators Rapid and Virtual Prototyping Entertainment Scientific Visualization Manufacturing Simulations Robotics, Tele-Robotics Architecture and City Planning

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