Published on January 22, 2008
Glory, God and Gold: Glory, God and Gold Voyages and Adventures America 1500 Henry the Navigator: Henry the Navigator To bring Portugal more trade and power and to spread Christianity, this prince sponsored expeditions beyond the safety of the Mediterranean. Glory, God or Gold? Beyond Darkest Africa: Beyond Darkest Africa The Portuguese yearned to find a sea route to India to thwart Arab “middlemen” who controlled overland routes, keeping prices of pepper and other spices high by keeping supplies low. Glory, God or Gold? Bartholomeu Dias: Bartholomeu Dias A fierce, 13 day storm blew his ship off course rounding the tip of Africa. He only realized how far he had gone when the skies cleared. Why do you think the cape he rounded (though he never saw it) was named “The Cape of Good Hope”? Glory, God or Gold? Vasco da Gama: Vasco da Gama In his first voyage, da Gama managed to reach Calicut in India (his goal) and sail home. The ruler of Calicut, (Samuri) welcomed da Gama: “The devil take ye!” and was scornful da Gama had not brought valuable presents. Slide7: Da Gama’s Second Trip Da Gama left better prepared the second time, with 14 well armed ships instead of two. Priests and religious processions sent him off with blessings. But he didn’t bring gifts: He demanded surrender of all valuables from a ship filled with 380 Muslim pilgrims. When they delayed he took the valuables—22,000 ducats worth—then burned the ship and everyone on it. At Calicut, he seized a fishermen and traders in the harbor, hanged them, cut up their bodies, and sent the hands, feet, and heads to the haughty Samuri. He left 5 ships of soldiers to secure the trading city. Glory, God or Gold? Christopher Columbus: Christopher Columbus Strengths: Belief in self and abilities Faith in his idea of reaching the Indies and China by sailing West Abilities as a sailor Luck Weaknesses: Belief in self and abilities— made him arrogant and cruel to crew and natives Faith in his idea of reaching the Indies and China by sailing West—made him foolhardy in holding to the idea he’d reached the Indies. First Voyage: Discovery: First Voyage: Discovery Crew: 87, 84 Andalucian sailors. Only 4 criminals seeking pardons Problems: superstitions of crew (sea monsters, fall off edge of world)—Columbus disciplined severely, minimized distances (falsely) so they wouldn’t know how far they’d gone. Failures: didn’t really find the Indies or China; didn’t find the riches expected Successes: found new lands for Spain, found western and eastern routes that took full advantage of prevailing currents and winds Second Voyage: Whoops!: Second Voyage: Whoops! 17 ships with 1200 men (6 of them priests to convert the “Indians”) set out to find Indies spices and gold 300 died of disease. A hurricane destroyed all of the ships. Patching together two ships from the scraps, Columbus limped home in disgrace. Third Voyage: Whoops 2: Third Voyage: Whoops 2 With 6 Ships, few volunteers and many convicts, Columbus set out to redeem himself. First hope—Natives brought Columbus and his crew gold nuggets to trade at Hispaniola Natives turned unfriendly and forced them to leave. Ships wormy and food rotten, but colonists wouldn’t help and Indians refused them food. After word of Indian killings reached the monarchs, Columbus and his brother were brought back to Spain in chains. Fourth Voyage: Defeat: Fourth Voyage: Defeat Privately funded, not patroned by Ferdinand and Isabella, Columbus was still “Admiral,” but had no governing powers over colonists. Although he sailed along the coast of South America, he found no riches, nor traces of the Indies or China and returned to Spain defeated. Glory, God or Gold? Ferdinand Magellan: Ferdinand Magellan Inspired by a friend who was both astrologer and cartographer, Magellan determined he could circumnavigate the globe.. Spurned by his native Portugal, he gained funding and patronage from Spain. He set out to accomplish Columbus’ goal, to reach the Indies and China by sailing West Magellan’s Voyage: Magellan’s Voyage Although the voyage is attributed to Magellan, he did not succeed in the circumnavigating globe. He was killed on the island of Mactan. Obstacles & Problems: Obstacles & Problems Finding many places along the coast that looked like sea passages that were just bays and inlets Running out of food and supplies. He thought he had supplies for two years. His suppliers in Spain fraudulently gave him six months worth. (He and the crew ate fresh fish and game, rats and wormy biscuits, even, oxhide bindings, and drank water contaminated with rat urine. Combating the mutiny of three out of his five ships. To quell it, he had to kill the captain of one of the ships, then block passage of the other two. Meeting greedy natives who swarmed over his ships and took everything that wasn’t nailed down. Navigating through one of the most treacherous passages of rock-lined water in the world: the strait named for him. Magellan and his crew suffered all of the following as he searched for a western sea passage around South America: Magellan’s Death: Magellan’s Death On an island in the Philippines, a native chieftain pretended to be Christian to enlist Magellan’s aid to fight a neighboring chieftain. Once on the island, Magellan was attacked by the chief and his men. He was repeatedly wounded by natives armed with poisoned arrows, spears and scimitars. He could have retreated and saved himself, but covered his fleeing men, fighting while the rest rowed back to the ships. Concluding the Voyage: Concluding the Voyage One by one the ships fell apart. The Portuguese imprisoned some of the men in islands near Spain Only 18 of the 250 men landed back at Seville. The total time of the voyage was 12 days less than three years. As penitence, the 18 survivors walked barefoot carrying candles to the shrine of the Virgin Mary. Glory, God or Gold?