Water Soluble Polymers for Industrial Applications, Compounding, Formulation and Manufacturing

Information about Water Soluble Polymers for Industrial Applications, Compounding,...

Published on August 9, 2016

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1. Water Soluble Polymers for Industrial Applications, Compounding, Formulation and Manufacturing

2. Introduction www.entrepreneurindia.co Water-soluble polymers, which perform various useful functions such as thickening, gelling, flocculating, rheology modifying and stabilizing in any given application, are used for a wide variety of applications including food processing, water treatment, paper, enhanced oil and natural gas recovery, mineral processing, detergents, textiles, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, petroleum production, and surface coatings.

3. Water-soluble polymers can be categorized into the following three groups: • Synthetic, which are produced by the polymerization of monomers synthesized from petroleum- or natural gas–derived raw materials • Semisynthetic, which are manufactured by chemical derivatization of natural organic materials, generally polysaccharides such as cellulose • Natural, including microbial-, plant- and animal-derived materials www.entrepreneurindia.co

4. Water-soluble polymers are used primarily to disperse, suspend (thicken and gel), or stabilize particulate matter. However, they may perform any of the following functions: Binding Coagulating Dispersing, suspending, stabilizing Film forming Flocculating Lubrication and friction reduction Rheology modification and control Thickening, gelling www.entrepreneurindia.co

5. Water soluble polymers cover a wide range of highly varied families of products of natural or synthetic origin, and have numerous uses. A water soluble polymer is a polymer that can be diluted in water, with or without the assistance of co solvents and neutralizing agents, to form transparent solutions. They may be classified into two types, totally synthetic polymers and natural products together with their chemically modified derivatives and further can be grouped into three main headings; naturally occurring, semi synthetic and completely synthetic polymers. www.entrepreneurindia.co

6. www.entrepreneurindia.co The water based polymers are quick drying non inflammable, having mild odour and more environmentally acceptability than any other polymers. Most conventional coating polymers at present can be produced in a form that will allow them to be solubilized in water. These include alkydes, polyesters, acrylics epoxies. There are various types of polymerization methods of water soluble polymers such as bulk polymerization, solution polymerization, copolymerization, emulsion polymerization and suspension polymerization. Water soluble polymers are used widely as stabilizers or protective colloids in emulsion polymerization.

7. Its most common use are gum acacia, starch either etherified or in its degraded form, dextrin, polyvinyl alchohol and hydroxyethyl cellulose. Polymers find many applications in oil recovery and production, including areas such as; drilling fluids, cementation of well bore, reservoir fracturing, controlling fluid flow in the reservoir and multistage processes of oil production and refining. The water soluble polymers market encompasses several categories, including starch, cellulose ethers, polyvinylacetate, polyvinyl alcohol and other synthetic water soluble polymers. The starch market is the largest. www.entrepreneurindia.co

8. www.entrepreneurindia.co This book basically deals with flow characteristics of water soluble polymer solutions, emulsion polymerization, water reducible resins, silicone modified alkyds and polyesters, cross linking of water soluble coatings, formulation of water soluble coatings, trouble shooting with water soluble polymers, acrylic solution resins, polyvinylpyrrolidone, commercial uses: compounding and formulating adhesives, methods of polymerization, methods for polymerization of acrylamide, fabrication of water soluble polymers, excluded volume interactions of neutral polymers etc.

9. www.entrepreneurindia.co The book covers classification of water soluble polymers, processes, properties, uses and applications of water soluble polymers with lot of other information. This book will be very resourceful for new entrepreneurs, existing units, technocrats, researchers and technical libraries.

10. www.entrepreneurindia.co Continued growth in water-soluble polymers is expected during 2012– 2017. In general, demand for water-soluble polymers is growing at rates near or slightly higher than the gross domestic product (GDP), particularly in regions with expanding manufacturing sectors of the economy. Water treatment dominated the application market and accounted for more than 20% of the total market in 2012. Detergents & household products are anticipated to grow at CAGR of 5.6% from 2013 to 2019 owing to increasing penetration of FMCG companies especially in the high GDP BRICS countries.

11. Furthermore, the growing shale gas drilling activities is one of the major factors driving the demand for water soluble polymers in petroleum applications. Paper making is another key market for water soluble polymers. Other water soluble polymer applications include Adhesives, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, textiles etc. www.entrepreneurindia.co

12. www.entrepreneurindia.co Table of Contents 1.WATER-SOLUBLEPOLYMERS Classification Synthetic Polymers Natural Products and their Derivatives Properties of Cellulose Ethers Degree of Polymerization Degree of Substitution Molar Substitution Application Basic Concepts of Rheology Flow Characteristics of Water Soluble Polymer Solutions Thixotropy Uses Latex Paints Emulsion Polymerization Other Applications

13. www.entrepreneurindia.co 2.WATER-REDUCIBLERESINS History Water-soluble Polymers Maleinized Drying Oils Alkyd Resins Acrylic-modified Water-soluble Alkyds Polyesters Silicone-modified Alkyds and Polyesters Epoxy Resins Acrylics Amino Resins Other Water-soluble Polymers Viscosity Characteristics Amines Viscosity Drying Stability Gloss

14. www.entrepreneurindia.co Foam Control Colour Retention Toxocity Variation of Amine Levels Cosolvents Coupling Efficiency Viscosity Stability Drying Properties Foam Control Driers for Air Dry and Force Dry Systems Cross-linking of Water-soluble Coatings Additives for Coatings Driers and Drier Accelerators Surfactants Flow Modifiers Thixotropes and Thickeners

15. www.entrepreneurindia.co Volatile Additives Pigments Formulation of Water-soluble Coatings Solubilization of Polymers Trouble Shooting with Water-soluble Polymers Vehicle Separation Low Opacity Photographing of Surface Defects Viscosity Variations Foaming and Air Entrapment Sags and Runs Poor Flow, Levelling and Orange Peel Low Gloss and Micro Wrinkles Flooding and Floating Cratering and Pinholing Picture Framing and Fat Edges Blistering and Solvent Popping

16. www.entrepreneurindia.co 3.ACRYLICSOLUTIONRESINS Terminology Backbone Monomers Synthesis Addition Polymerization Copolymerization Thermoplastic Acrylics Selection of Monomer Solution Polymerization Properties and End Uses Thermosetting Acrylics Selection of Monomer Classification and Properties Acrylamide Copolymers Acid Copolymers Hydroxy Copolymers Curing Reactions

17. www.entrepreneurindia.co Aqueous Solution Acrylics Non-Aqueous Dispersions (NAD) 4.POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE Introduction Chemical Nature Physical Properties Manufacture Toxicological Properties PVP Films Compatibilities Future Developments Application of PVP Pharmacy Medicine Beverages

18. www.entrepreneurindia.co Cosmetics and Toiletries Textiles Paper Adhesives Detergents and Soaps Polymers and Polymerization Agricultural Photography and Lithography 5.POLY (ETYLENEOXIDE) Introduction Chemical Nature Physical Properties Manufacture Biological/Toxicological Properties Rheological Properties Additives/Extenders

19. www.entrepreneurindia.co Applications Application Procedures Commercial Uses: Compounding and formulating Adhesives Industrial Supplies Constructions Products Paints and Paint Removers Pharmaceuticals Printing Products Soap, Detergents, and Personal Care Products Water-Soluble Films Commercial Uses: Processing Aids Binder Coatings and Sizes Dispersant Flocculation Hydrodynamic Drag Reduction

20. www.entrepreneurindia.co Thermoplastics Manufactures Thickening/Rheology Control Water Retention Industries Using Polyethylene Oxide Formulations Aluminum and Metal Cleaner Calamine Lotion Denture Flexative Powder Detergent Bars Detergent Liquid Lithographic Press Dampening Fluid Micro Encapsulation Paint and Varnish Remover Thickened Acetic Acid Thickened Hydrochloric Acid (Muriatric Acid) Thickened Sulfuric Acid

21. www.entrepreneurindia.co Rubber Lubricant (For Mounting of Tires) Toothpastes 6.METHODSOF POLYMERIZATION Acrylamide Initiation Methods Single Component Initiators Redox Initiators Mechanism of Initiation Dependence of Polymerization on Temperature Propagation and Termination Effect of pH Effect of Monomer Concentration Effect of Polymerization Medium Inorganic Salts Effect of Surfactants Nature of the Termination Process

22. www.entrepreneurindia.co Substituted Acrylamides Heat of Polymerization Methods for Polymerization of Acrylamide Acrylic and Methacrylic Acids Effect of pH Effect of Polymerization Medium N-vinyl Pyrrolidone (NVP) Other Water Soluble Polymers Vinyl Alkyl Ethers Ethylene Oxide (Cyclic Ether) Ethylene Imine Conclusions 7.CHEMICALMODIFICATIONS Cross-Linking with Functional Groups Cross-Linking by Hydrogen Bonding

23. www.entrepreneurindia.co Effects of Cross-Linking on the Physical Properties of Polymers Principal Types of Water-soluble Polymers Determination of Cross-linking Density Chemical Reactions of Water Soluble Polymers Reactions of Cellulose and Starch Structure and Cross-Linking Reactions of Proteins Cross-Linking Reactions Involving Metal Ions 8.FABRICATIONOF WATERSOLUBLE POLYMERS Extrusion Molding Calendering Thermoforming Bonding Foams Plastisol Processing

24. www.entrepreneurindia.co 9.COMPOUNDINGOF WATERSOLUBLE POLYMERS Compound Ingredients Plasticized Poly(vinyl Chloride) Plastisols Techniques 10.POLYMERIZATIONOF WATERSOLUBLEPOLYMERS Bulk Polymerization Effect of Oxygen Solution Polymerization Chain Transfer and Molecular-Weight Control Copolymerization Industrial Manufacture Emulsion Polymerization Suspension Polymerization Solution and Bulk Polymerization

25. www.entrepreneurindia.co 11.PROPERTIESOF WATERSOLUBLE POLYMERS Structure Property Values Testing Specifications Degradation and Stabilization 12.SOLUTIONTHERMODYNAMICSOF NON-IONICWATERSOLUBLE POLYMERS Experimental Techniques Theory Comparison with Aqueous Solutions Possible Reasons for the Deviations The Hydrophobic Interaction Evidence for Hydrophobic Interaction for Polyoxyethylene Solutions Aggregation Conformation

26. www.entrepreneurindia.co 13.FRACTIONATIONANDCHARACTERIZATION Molar Mass and Its Distribution Preparative Fractionation Molar Mass Measurement Reference Methods Solution Viscosity Analytical Size-exclusion Chromatography Characterization of Polyacrylamide 14.WATERSOLUBILITYANDSENSIVITY Scope and Classification Thermodynamic Formalism Experimental Data Hydrophobic Effects Concentrated Solutions Non-Equilibriuy Behaviour: Bound and Unfreezable Water

27. www.entrepreneurindia.co Time Dependent Properties Conclusions 15.AQUEOUSSOLUTIONSOF POLYELECTROLYTES The Phenomenological Approach The Theoretical Approach 16.POLYMERSMALLMOLECULEINTERACTIONS Interaction of Polymers with Water (i) Hydrophobic Interactions (ii) Hydrophilic Interactions Interaction with Ions Interaction with Surfactants 17.EXCLUDEDVOLUME INTERACTIONSOF NEUTRALPOLYMERS General Thermodynamic Relationships

28. www.entrepreneurindia.co Expression of Chemical Potentials in Terms of Composition Binary (One-Solute) and Ternary (Two-Solute) Systems Consequences of Non-Ideality Excluded-Volume Interaction of Polymers Approximate Expression of Available Volume Effect of Concentration on the Configuration of Chain-Polymers Some Experimental Examples 18.POLYMERADSORPTION Theoretical Predictions Experimental Methods (a) Macroscopic Interfaces (b) Particulate Dispersions Experimental Results 19.POLYVINYLALCOHOL General

29. Film Solubility and Swelling in Water Solubility in Organic Solvents Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol Films Gelling and Precipitation of Polyvinyl Alcohol Conclusion 20.ROLE OF POLYMERSINTHE STABILIZATIONOF DISPERSESYSTEMS The Attractive Interaction General Methods for Imparting Colloid Stability Steric Stabilization The Phenomenology of Flocculation Indentification of the Critical Flocculation Point Notes on the Theta-point Classification of Sterically Stabilized Dispersions The Unimportance of Dispersion Forces in Incipient Flocculation www.entrepreneurindia.co

30. Qualitative Discussion of the Origins of Steric Stabilization Non-Aqueous (and some aqueous) Dispersions Aqueous Dispersions Quantitative Calculation of Repulsive Potential Energy Enhanced Steric Stabilization Elastic Steric Stabilization in Polymer Melts Heterosteric Stabilization Depletion Stabilization Schematic Representation of the Effects of Idealized High Molecular Weight Polymer 21.WATERSOLUBLE POLYMERSASSTABILIZERS Adsorption Behaviour of Water-Soluble Polymers a. Adsorption on Model TM Polymer Dispersions b. Adsorption on Inorganic Dispersions c. Effect of Low Molecular Weight Surfactants on Adsorption www.entrepreneurindia.co

31. Interactions of Water-Soluble Polymers with Surfactants Effects of Water-Soluble Polymers Added to Dispersions Water-Soluble Polymers as Stabilizers in Dispersion Polymerization a. Technological Aspects b. The Function of WSPs in Polymerizing Dispersions 22.POLYMERICFLOCCULANTS Nature of Polymeric Flocculants Bridging Flocculation Adsorption Mechanisms Flocculation by Bridging Kinetic Aspects of Bridging Flocculation Charge Neutralization 23.THERMOREVERSIBLEGELATION Conclusion www.entrepreneurindia.co

32. 24.WATERSENSITIVEGELS Structure of Synthetic Hydrogels Preparation Swelling of Gels Surface Properties 25.RHEOLOGICALCHARACTERIZATIONOF SOLUTION ANDGEL Interpretation of Results Concentrated Solutions Polymer Networks Surface and Interfacial Rheological Behaviour 26.THE INTERFACEBETWEENAQUEOUSPOLYMERSOLUTIONANDITSAPPLICATION Types of Water-Soluble Polymers www.entrepreneurindia.co

33. Technological Aspects Scientific Aspects Interaction Forces 27.POLYMERSINOILRECOVERYANDPRODUCTION Operations Employing Polymers Drilling Fluids Cementing Fluids Fracturing Fluids Mobility Control for Water Flood Recovery Polymers Employed in Reservoir Preparation and Oil Recovery Cellulose Derivatives Naturally Occurring Gums and their Derivatives Starch and Its Derivatives Acrylamide Polymers Oil Production Polymers Scale Formation www.entrepreneurindia.co

34. Corrosion Inhibitors Demulsifiers 28.MEDICALANDPHARMACEUTICALAPPLICATIONS Polymers Used Therapeutically/Prophylactically Biomedical/Prosthetic Uses Pharmaceutical Applications Processing and Formulation Aids; Disintegrants Tablet Coating Microencapsulation Sustained Drug Delivery Degradation Disintegration and Dissolution of Polymers Diffusion Drug Complexing Agents Stabilization of Dispersions/Controlled Flocculation Conclusion www.entrepreneurindia.co

35. 29.APPLICATIONSOF POLYMEREMULSIONSFORWATER-BASEDPAINTS Historical Changes in Demand Selection of Raw Materials Monomers Range of Products Resin Emulsions: Thermoplastic Type Polyvinyl Acetate Emulsions Vinyl Acetate - Acrylic Copolymers Styrene Acrylic Copolymer Emulsions Vinyl Acetate - Veova Copolymers Acrylic Emulsions Film Forming Mechanism 30.AQUEOUSPOLYURETHANEDISPERSIONTECHNOLOGYANUPDATE Introduction www.entrepreneurindia.co

36. (1) Definition (2) Dispersion Behaviour (3) Film Formation Chemical Classification (1) Anionic (2) Cationic (3) Nonionic Preparation Procedures (1) Acetone Process (2) Prepolymer Mixing Process (3) Hot-Melt Process (4) Ketamine/Ketazine Process (5) Self-Dispersing of Solids www.entrepreneurindia.co

37. Chemical Crosslinking (1) Blocked Isocyanates (2) Radiation Induced Crosslinking (3) Crosslinking with Melamine/Formaldehyde Resin (4) Aziridines (5) Zirconium Compounds Factors Influencing Performance (1) Type of Polyols (2) Type of Isocyanates (3) NCO/OH Ratio (4) Effect of Pendant Functionality (5) Effect of Catalysts (6) Particle Size (7) Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) (8) Molecular Weight (9) Intermolecular Forces (10) Crosslinking Density www.entrepreneurindia.co

38. Recent Advances (1) Improvement in Storage Stability (2) Improvememt in Water and Chemical Resistance (3) Improvement in Mechanical Properties (4) lmprovement in Other Important Properties Combination of PUD with acrylics Characterisation of Aqueous PUDs (1) Abrasion Resistance (2) Solvent Resistance (3) Thermal Analysis (4) Fourier Transform - Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) Applications The Future Acknowledgment www.entrepreneurindia.co

39. 31.MAINTENANCECOATINGSBASEDON WATERBORNEDISPERSIONS Introduction Formulating Principles Pigments Additives Binders Acrylics/Vinyls/Vinyl-Acrylic Emulsions Polyurethane Dispersions Cross Linking Epoxy Dispersions Miscellaneous Systems Conclusion www.entrepreneurindia.co

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59. Contact us Niir Project Consultancy Services 106-E, Kamla Nagar, New Delhi-110007, India. Email: [email protected] , [email protected] Tel: +91-11-23843955, 23845654, 23845886 Mobile: +91-9811043595 Fax: +91-11-23841561 Website : www.niir.org www.entrepreneurindia.co Take a look at NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES on #StreetView https://goo.gl/VstWkd www.niir.org www.entrepreneurindia.co

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