Published on March 27, 2008
Slide1: The interior of a Buddhist temple at Ajanta, India. The people of Southern Asia have formed important civilizations and created religions that have spread throughout the region and the world. Unit 5 Southern Asia: Place and Times NEXT Slide2: Southern Asia: Place and Times NEXT Slide3: Southern Asia’s geography affects how the region’s people live. NEXT Slide4: The Variety of Southern Asia The Nations of South Asia Greater South Asia includes Afghanistan, Maldives, Sri Lanka South Asian subcontinent: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan Subcontinent—large landmass that is part of a continent - but is geographically separate from rest of continent India is subcontinent’s largest nation, world’s second most populous Physical Geography NEXT Slide5: Geographic Regions of South Asia The Northern Mountain Rim Hindu Kush Mountains in west; Himalayas in east cross India, Nepal - Mount Everest is world’s tallest peak—five and a half miles high Karakoram Range lies in middle Ranges block off subcontinent; passes allow travel, invasions - Khyber Pass connects Pakistan, Afghanistan Rough terrain is dangerous, hard to farm; few people live in area Continued . . . NEXT Slide6: The Northern Plains Northern Plains lie between Himalayas, southern India - Ganges River flows from Himalayas to Bangladesh, Bay of Bengal - Indus River flows through Pakistan to Arabian Sea - at seas, form large deltas—triangular soil deposits at river mouth continued Geographic Regions of South Asia Continued . . . NEXT Slide7: The Northern Plains Ganges carries rich sediment—minerals, debris from river bottom When plains flood, sediment deposits make area fertile for farming - Northern Plains is densely populated due to rich soil Bangladesh has 130 million people in area the size of Wisconsin Indus River valley was once also fertile, densely populated - today is mostly desert, sparsely populated continued Geographic Regions of South Asia Continued . . . NEXT Slide8: The Deccan Plateau Large Deccan Plateau of southern India has mineral deposits, forests Eastern and Western Ghats mountains border plateau Coastal plains between Ghats and oceans have fertile soil, water Plateau is less populated than Northern Plains continued Geographic Regions of South Asia Sri Lanka and the Maldives Sri Lanka is mountainous, rainy island off southern tip of India Maldives are 400 miles of 1,200 low coral islands called atolls NEXT Slide9: Regions and Nations of Southeast Asia Mainland Southeast Asia Mainland lies on Indochinese, Malay peninsulas Nations: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia (part) Mekong River drains densely populated, rice-producing region - from Plateau of Tibet, through Laos, Cambodia, to South China Sea Continued . . . NEXT Slide10: Islands of Southeast Asia Nations include Borneo (of which Malaysia owns part), Singapore - also Indonesian, Philippine archipelagoes—groups of islands Densely populated Indonesia is region’s largest country - made up of 17,000 tropical islands; over 6,000 are inhabited Philippines includes 7,100 islands; 800 inhabited Around half the people of both Indonesia, Philippines are farmers continued Regions and Nations of Southeast Asia NEXT Slide11: Climate and Monsoons The Monsoon Cycle Monsoon—seasonal wind blowing over north Indian Ocean - brings moisture, heavy rains from southwest from April–October - blows dry from northeast from November–February Rains fall in South Asia, June–October; in Southeast, April–September Depending on Rain Farmers plan planting, harvest around monsoon rains - too much rain floods, ruins crops, destroys property NEXT Slide12: The people of ancient India established social and cultural practices that became widespread throughout the region. NEXT Slide13: The Indus River Valley Civilization The Harappan Civilization Develops in Indus River valley from 2500 B.C. to 1700 B.C. Mostly in Pakistan area, from Delhi, India, to Kabul, Afghanistan Major cities are Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro - Mohenjo-Daro has public buildings, irrigation canals Civilization ends perhaps due to climate change or Aryan conquest Ancient India NEXT Slide14: The Aryan Influence on South Asia A New People, a New Civilization Aryans come to South Asia from Russia around 1700 B.C. Are nomadic herders who speak Sanskrit language New Technology Discover iron ore in Ganges around 1000 B.C. Iron plows improve rice growing; Aryans settle into towns Iron weapons enable them to rule northern India NEXT Slide15: The Vedas Hinduism, based on Aryan practices, develops in ancient India Aryan priests chant hymns to gods; written down, hymns become Vedas - Vedas—Books of Knowledge on prayers, hymns, rituals, philosophy Hinduism—A Way of Life Continued . . . Karma and Reincarnation Karma—a person’s actions determine what happens after death Reincarnation—after death, soul is repeatedly reborn into new bodies - status in present life is determined by behavior in past life NEXT Slide16: The Caste System Caste—inherited social class that determines job, marriage, friends - based on Aryan tribal system, belief that people are not equal Four main classes: priest, warrior/prince, merchant/farmer, laborer - untouchables are beneath the four classes, are shunned Today there are thousands of castes, subcastes - government is trying to reduce caste influence on society continued Hinduism—A Way of Life NEXT Slide17: The Mauryan Empire First Indian empire founded by Aryan descendents (324–185 B.C.) - Emperor Ashoka unifies government; builds stone palaces, monuments The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties Continued . . . The Golden Age and the Gupta Dynasty Gupta rule is golden age of science, art, literature (A.D. 320–500) Both Hinduism, Buddhism are practiced, inspire artists, architects NEXT Slide18: Literature Gupta’s Sanskrit literature includes poet-playwright Kalidasa - his fifth-century plays teach moral principles continued The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties Mathematics Gupta develop concept of zero and design today’s numerals - learned by Europeans from Islamic civilizations, so called Arabic NEXT Slide19: The culture of ancient Southeast Asia was heavily influenced by traders and travelers from China, India, and other countries. NEXT Slide20: Crossroads of Culture Early History Ancient Indian, Chinese come to crossroads of Southeast Asia - crossroads—place where people, goods, ideas come together Skills develop in Southeast Asia first, before China or India - making bronze tools; growing yams, rice; sailing - some of the earliest agriculture develops 15,000–10,000 B.C. Ancient Crossroads Continued . . . NEXT Slide21: Trade and Travel Central position makes Southeast Asia trade crossroads - center of South Pacific, Indian Ocean sea trade routes Region’s goods, ideas reach India, China, Southwest Asia, Africa - rice, tea, timber, spices, gold, religion, agriculture, art continued Crossroads of Culture Influence of India Indian traders arrive around A.D. 100 Region adopts Indian Hinduism, Buddhism, art, architecture NEXT Slide22: Buddhism in Southeast Asia The Signs of the Buddha Buddhism founded in India in 500 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama - a warrior-prince, he leaves his family, wealth - wanders in self-denial, seeks causes of human suffering Gains enlightenment—religious awakening—through meditation - believes he knows reasons for suffering, how to escape it People call him the Buddha—the Enlightened One Continued . . . NEXT Slide23: Buddhist Teachings Follows Hinduism’s karma, reincarnation; rejects its castes, priests Four Noble Truths: - life is pain - suffering is from desiring things - seek to be free of desire, pain; achieve nirvana—happiness, peace - Middle Way—Eightfold Path is guide to escaping suffering continued Buddhism in Southeast Asia Continued . . . NEXT Slide24: Buddhist Teachings Eightfold Path’s guidelines include: - right understanding, purpose, speech, conduct - right means of livelihood, effort, awareness, meditation continued Buddhism in Southeast Asia Continued . . . NEXT Slide25: The Spread of Buddhism After Buddha’s death, followers spread the faith to: - south India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia - Tibet, central Asia, China, Korea, Japan Today, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam are major in India continued Buddhism in Southeast Asia NEXT Slide26: Indian Influence in Southeast Asia Empire of the Khmer Khmer people establish Hindu kingdom in Cambodia in A.D. 500s - build huge Hindu temple complex of Angkor Wat Kingdom spreads through Southeast Asia - Khmer retreat to Phnom Penh when Buddhism replaces Hinduism in area Indonesian Buddhist temple of Borobudur built in 500s Buddhism spreads to Myanmar, inspires Pagan kingdom in 1000s NEXT Slide27: This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.