Published on April 18, 2008
World War II, Japan, and Diplomacy: World War II, Japan, and Diplomacy Slide2: World War II, or the Second World War -was a worldwide conflict fought between the Allied Powers and the Axis Powers, from 1939 until 1945. Armed forces from over seventy nations engaged in aerial, naval, and ground-based combat. Spanning much of the globe. -Axis powers desired both lands that had been denied them after WWI and other regions rich in resources. Growing American Involvement: Growing American Involvement When the war began in 1939, the United States declared its neutrality. Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, which allowed the President to supply arms to those who were fighting for democracy. Roosevelt and Churchill issued the Atlantic Charter, which called for the “final destruction of the Nazi tyranny.” Japan advanced into French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies. To stop Japanese aggression, the United States banned the sale of war materials to Japan. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. The United States declared war on Japan. Germany and Italy, as Japan’s allies, declared war on the United States. 2 Occupied Lands : Occupied Lands Hitler set up puppet governments in countries that were peopled by “Aryans.” Eastern Europeans were considered an inferior “race,” and were thus shoved aside to provide “living space” for Germans. To the Nazis, occupied lands were an economic resource to be looted and plundered. Japanese invasion of China which began even before WWII until the end of WWII. While the Germans rampaged across Europe, the Japanese conquered an empire in Asia and the Pacific. Each set out to build a “new order” in the occupied lands. 3 Japan’s Aggression Article: New Order for “Greater East Asia”: Japan’s Aggression Article: New Order for “Greater East Asia” In the late 1930’s, Japan’s concept for a “new order” in East Asia had the fundamental idea that a cooperative economic order would benefit the oppressed Asian region. Japan’s self-proclaimed mission was to help Asians escape imperial rule. In fact, its real goal was a Japanese empire in Asia. The Atomic Bomb: Dropping the atomic bomb brought a quick end to the war. It also unleashed terrifying destruction. Truman was convinced that Japan would not surrender without an invasion that would result in enormous losses of both American and Japanese lives. Truman also may have hoped that the bomb would impress the Soviet Union with American power. The Atomic Bomb 4 Aftermath of War: Aftermath of War The appalling costs of the war began to emerge. The world learned the full extent of the horrors of the Holocaust. War crimes trials were held in Germany, Italy, and Japan. The Allies worked to strengthen democracy in occupied Germany and Japan. 5 Casualties of World War II: Casualties of World War II 5 Military Military Civilian Dead Wounded Dead Allies Britain 389,000 475,000 65,000 France 211,000 400,000 108,000 Soviet Union 7,500,000 14,102,000 15,000,000 United States 292,000 671,000 ** Axis Powers Germany 2,850,000 7,250,000 5,000,000 Italy 77,500 120,000 100,000 Japan 1,576,000 500,000 300,000 ** Very small number of civilian dead. Source: Henri Michel, The Second World War The United Nations: The United Nations Under the UN Charter, each of the member nations had one vote in the General Assembly. A smaller body, the Security Council, was given greater power. Its five permanent members were the United States, the Soviet Union (today Russia), Britain, France, and China. The UN’s work would go far beyond peacekeeping. The organization would take on many world problems. 5 Japan’s Recovery and Economic Miracle: Japan’s Recovery and Economic Miracle Japan’s success was based on producing goods for export. At first, the nation manufactured textiles. Later, it shifted to making steel, and then to high technology. While Japan had to rebuild from scratch, the nation had successfully industrialized in the past. Thus, it was able to quickly build efficient, modern factories and adapt the latest technology. Japan benefited from an educated, highly skilled work force. Japanese workers saved much of their money. These savings gave banks the capital to invest in industrial growth. Japan did not have to spend money on maintaining a large military force. 1 Japan Issues at home: Japan Issues at home 1945-1952: Allied occupation of Japan; democratic party government is restored; women gain legal equality and right to vote. Enactment of the new (democratic) constitution transforms Japan's political life, making it a truly parliamentary state. With a peace treaty signed in 1951, Japan regains its independence. Late 1950s to the early 1970s is called the "High Growth Age" in Japan because of the booming economy. Highlights of the era are the Tokyo Olympic Games in 1964 and Expo 1970 in Osaka. In 1972 relations with China are normalized. Economic and Political Interaction: Economic and Political Interaction The oil crisis of the 1970s brought home Japan’s dependence on the world market. In response to the economic challenge the oil crisis presented, Japan sought better relations with oil-producing nations of the Middle East. Japan has had to deal with nations that still held bitter memories of World War II. Japan was slow to apologize for its wartime actions. In the 1990s, Japanese leaders offered some public regrets for the destruction of the war years. For many years, Japan took a back seat in international politics. More recently, it has taken on a larger world role. Today, Japan ranks as the world’s largest donor of foreign aid. 1 Slide13: Global issues foster debate. In 1989 Prince Akihito succeeds to the throne. 1991 the gulf War ignites controversy over Japan's role in the international community. Should Japan strictly protect the "peace" constitution of 1947, a major cause of its prosperity? Or should it contribute troops as well as financial support to United Nations operations? In 1993, after Japanese troops are pulled out of a United Nations operation in Cambodia, the arguments go on: Should Japan become more internationally minded? Or should domestic peace and prosperity be the main priority? Diplomacy: Diplomacy Defined as, the art of negotiation between nations using tact. American Diplomacy The idea of a long-held American faith in freedom and self-determination. American diplomacy had to grapple with the differing visions and objectives of other important partners of the international scene. International Diplomacy World War II Allies set up an international organization to ensure peace. Japanese Diplomacy Reaffirm commitment to remain involved in the UN’s efforts to ensure peace and stability throughout the world. 5 Slide15: Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations http://www.un.int/japan/aboutus/index.htm Ambassadors H.E. Mr. Kenzo Oshima H.E. Mr. Takahiro Shinyo H.E. Mr. Jiro Kodera Welcome to the website of the Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations. Since Japan’s entry into the UN in 1956, the Mission has represented the Government of Japan in conducting diplomacy to achieve its foreign policy goals. As we celebrate our 50th Anniversary as a Member State of the United Nations this year, we reaffirm our commitment to remain deeply involved in the UN’s efforts to ensure peace and stability throughout the world.