Published on January 24, 2008
Borders in Cyberspace:Deriving Maximum Benefitfrom Public Investment in Scientific Data Retention: Borders in Cyberspace: Deriving Maximum Benefit from Public Investment in Scientific Data Retention Peter Weiss U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [email protected] Overview: Overview Information Policy and the Economy Information Economics and Recent Research Practical Experiences and Emerging trends Information Access and Development Conclusions and Recommendations Source: “Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts.” http://www.weather.gov/sp/Bordersreport2.pdf What are “Borders in Cyberspace”?: What are “Borders in Cyberspace”? Global data sets needed to predict large-scale phenomena. Monsoons: Mohanty, Goswami, et al. “Association between quasi-biweekly oscillations and summer monsoon variabilities,” India Meteorological Society (2001) 20 years model output data available openly from NCDC. Researchers couldn’t afford ECMWF data for same period. Results of ECMWF data policy: Benefits: ECMWF did not receive any revenue. No benefit. Costs: What is the economic and social harm to over 1 billion people from hampered research? U.S. Public Information Policy: U.S. Public Information Policy “…government information is a valuable national resource, and… the economic benefits to society are maximized when government information is available in a timely and equitable manner to all.” From OMB Circular No. A-130 “Open and unrestricted access to public information at no more than the cost of dissemination” Sources of U.S. Information Policy: Sources of U.S. Information Policy Copyright Act (17 U.S.C. 105) Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) Paperwork Reduction Act ( 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35) Electronic FOIA Amendments of 1996. Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-130, “Management of Federal Information Resources,” (61 FR 6425, February 20, 1996) http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars/a130/a130trans4.html US Information Dissemination Principles (from OMB Circular No. A-130): US Information Dissemination Principles (from OMB Circular No. A-130) Federal agencies should: Actively disseminate all public information; Without restrictions or conditions; At no more than the cost of dissemination; While taking advantage of private, academic and other channels of dissemination; And using best available technologies, e.g. internet, WWW, satellite downcast, etc. Government Information and the Economy: Government Information and the Economy Taxpayer-funded government information – from corporate data from the Securities and Exchange Commission to patent data from the Patent and Trademark office - is contributing to the spectacular growth in the information retrieval and database industries: From a $4 billion industry in 1994 to an expected $56 billion industry in 2004. From 900 database vendors in 1991 to 4060 vendors in 2003. Source: U.S. Industry & Trade Outlook; Gale Directory of Databases, Volume 1: Online Databases, 2003, part 1. Weather and the Economy: Weather and the Economy Economic Decisions are based on NOAA data and products Significant Economic Benefits to the Nation from Open and Unrestricted Data Policy “Weather impacts $3.8 Trillion [per year] or approximately 1/3 of the U.S. economy” – Dean John Dutton, Penn State University (2002) Commercial meteorology industry - $500M per year Growing weather risk management industry over $14 Billion in contracts over the period 1998-2002. – Weather Risk Management Association U.S. Market for Private Weather Services: U.S. Market for Private Weather Services Total US: $430 million Source: 1999 private survey The U.S. Public/Private Partnership: The U.S. Public/Private Partnership Academic/Research Creates the research and models to advance the science Government Freely available data including satellite & radar General forecasts and warnings for all Private Companies Commercial Meteorology Weather Risk Management Media Source: “Fair Weather: Effective Partnerships in Weather and Climate Services,” National Academy Press (2003). http://books.nap.edu/books/0309087465/html/index.html Different funding models forPublic Sector Informatin: Different funding models for Public Sector Informatin In Europe: Funding Structure: Treasuries and legislation force agencies to go “off the budget” and find their own ways in funding their agencies. Generally not successful or efficient. IRS Originating agency Users and other agencies Wealth/jobs=taxes Congress/ OMB Originating agency Users EU treasury and legislation Europe: data users pay for data Other agencies Open information In the US: General revenue funds Federal information activities, creation of wealth and jobs returns taxes to the Treasury. Feedback loop. Economics of Information: Economics of Information Information is not a normal good in the economic sense, and basic economic laws of supply and demand work differently in the information world: Dependence on a medium High fixed costs, low reproduction costs (easy and cheap to copy) Non-rival and non-excludable = “public good” High price elasticity of demand Time dependent Barriers to entry This results in failed attempts at government commercialisation. Economic Benefits of Open Access Policies - Recent Studies: Economic Benefits of Open Access Policies - Recent Studies PIRA International (for the EC, on the potential of European public sector information) Netherlands Economics Institute (for the Dutch Ministry of the Interior, on the prosperity effects of open access policy) National Research Council (Conflicts arising from the privatization of environmental data) Dutch Federal Geographic Data Committee (on the economic benefits of open access policy for geographic information) Lopez Maurer (Impact of database protection legislation) Zillman and Freebairn (Economics of meteorological information) WRMA/PricewaterhouseCoopers (Weather risk management market) The Potential of European Public Sector Informationby PIRA International: The Potential of European Public Sector Information by PIRA International This gap between the USA and the European Union offers opportunities and challenges for European companies and for their governments. The Potential of European Public Sector Informationby PIRA International: The Potential of European Public Sector Information by PIRA International The US public sector information market place is up to five times the size of the EU market. Charging for public sector information may be counter-productive, even from the short term perspective of raising direct revenue for government agencies. The fledgling EU market would not even have to double in size for governments to more than recoup in extra tax receipts what they would lose by ceasing to charge for public sector information. Research on the size of the Weather Risk Management Industryby WRMA and PricewaterhouseCoopers: Research on the size of the Weather Risk Management Industry by WRMA and PricewaterhouseCoopers Weather Risk Management industry is booming in North America: $ 9.6 billion in contract value in five years ending March 2002. The European market is small: $ 721 million in the same five years. A significant contributor to this disparity is the difference in information policies between Europe and the United States/Canada. Source: WRMA, PriceWaterhouseCoopers (2002). http://wrma.org Impact on Market Development:Value of Long-term Retention : Impact on Market Development: Value of Long-term Retention 15 Gigabites of all U.S. historical observations since 1948 on CD-Rom for $ 4290 from NCDC. versus Price quote of over $1.5 million for historical data from one European country, Germany DWD price quote of DM 4000 for historical record of one station Results: Benefit: US weather risk management industry benefits. Cost: German weather service gets no revenue. EU weather risk management industry suffers. Commercial Meteorology in the US and Europe: Commercial Meteorology in the US and Europe Sources: Commercial Weather Services Association (1) and Meteoconsult (2) Since the size of the US and EU economies are approximately the same, there is no reason for the European market not to grow to US size with accompanying revenue generation and job growth. Restrictive government information policies stand in the way. Cost Recovery Experiments in the U.S. not Successful: Cost Recovery Experiments in the U.S. not Successful State of California Cost recovery resulted in degradation of overall State geographic information system Automated Tariff Filing and Information System Over three years, only $ 438,800 (0.05%) of the $ 810 million in expected revenue recovered United States Geological Survey Cost recovery in 1980’s resulted in significant decrease in data sales. Dissemination only cost recovery successful in 1990’s. State of Wisconsin Counties with open access policies foster a broad user base and maximum public interest use of geographic data. Counties on a “cost recovery” system see dramatic fall in usage and users. Cost Recovery Experience in Europe : Cost Recovery Experience in Europe UK Meteorological Office 50% of total revenue comes from Ministry of Defence, 30% from other government agencies. Revenue from data sales not significant, causing some categories of observational data to be made open and unrestricted. British Ordnance Survey 10% of total revenues comes from HM Treasury 32% of total revenues comes from sales to the private sector. 68% comes from utilities and government entities. Deutscher Wetterdienst Only 1% of operating costs covered by data sales; pricing of commercial services at 40% of cost recovery raises fair competition issues. Interactive 3D Map of New Zealand: Interactive 3D Map of New Zealand Open NZ Geodata stimulates new mapping applications: Open NZ Geodata stimulates new mapping applications NZ abandons copyright and cost recovery for geodata in 2000. Revenues were minimal. Little use being made. “We argued that it was created at taxpayer expense and being hoarded. We argued that it was not scarce and if released we couldn’t destroy it – all we could do was add value.” 15 meter resolution. Roger Smith, GeographX Immediate surge in commercial activity serving diverse needs: Forestry and agriculture Tourism Land use planning Emergency preparedness and civil defense Source: New Zealand Herald, December 3, 2003 Land Remote Sensing Archive: Land Remote Sensing Archive # of Images Dates Volume Landsat MSS 631,000 1972 - 1992 19TB Landsat TM 470,000 1982 onward 130TB+ AVHRR 250,000 1986 onward 31TB+ Corona 880,000 1960 - 1972 N/A (on film) SPOT 720,000 1986 - 1998 61TB All available open and unrestricted at cost of dissemination (I.e. Cost of Filling User Requests – “COFUR”) Except SPOT, negotiations in progress. Source: USGS, February 2002 Land Remote Sensing Archive: Land Remote Sensing Archive Applications and benefits: Agricultural practices and groundcover science Urban dynamics Hydrology: groundwater and rivers Natural hazards and public health The National Map “A database of continuously maintained base geographic information for the United States and it’s territories that will serve as the Nation’s topographic map for the 21st century.” Human genome data cooperation: Human genome data cooperation “The human genome, the common heritage of all humanity, is arguably the most valuable dataset the biomedical research community has ever known. It holds long-sought secrets of human development, physiology, and medicine.” National Human Genome Research Institute. Policy: Rapid release of data into the public domain. http://www.genome.gov/10001801 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium. Private sector agrees to make data publicly available without intellectual property restrictions. http://snp.cshl.org/about/ Information and Health:Haplotype of the human genome: Information and Health: Haplotype of the human genome An international project to identify the genes behind common diseases. Benefits: International Cooperative Project: China, United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Open data policy. Explores the 0.01 percent of human DNA that varies between individuals. Where variations in DNA sequences on the same chromosome are inherited in blocks, they are known as ‘haplotypes.’ Better understand how genetic variations affect an individual’s risk of diseases such as asthma, cancer, diabetes and heart disease. The project will examine genetic samples from populations in Africa, Asia and Europe. Cite: Hepeng, Jia. SciDev.Net. September 23, 2003. Information and Health: Ozone Exposure: Information and Health: Ozone Exposure Partnership in air quality forecasting and promotes environmental measures aimed at reducing surface ozone levels. Public health benefits to sensitive populations: children, elderly and individuals with respiratory ailments. Benefits: Data sharing partnership between NWS, EPA and state/locals. NWS: develops tools for national/state/local air quality forecasting, provides models and forecast pollutant concentration fields. EPA: maintains national emissions inventory and national air quality monitoring databases, disseminates/interprets national air quality forecast information States/Locals: Provides state/local emissions data, state/local air quality monitoring data,and local forecasts/warnings Source: Paula Davidson, Office of Science and Technology, NOAA/NWS “ National Air Quality Forecast Capability: First Steps Toward Implementation,” May 7, 2003 Information Access and Development: Information Access and Development Global data sets needed to predict large-scale phenomena. Monsoons. Mohanty, Goswami, et al. “Association between quasi-biweekly oscillations and summer monsoon variabilities,” India Meteorological Society (2001) Weather radio network for rural areas. African Center for Meteorological Applications for Development (ACMAD). RANET pilots in six countries. Emerging Weather Risk Management Market. World Bank - Moroccan sunflower crop. Changes at the European Level: Changes at the European Level In Europe, recognition is emerging that open access to government information is critical to the information society, environmental protection, and economic growth. Current developments are encouraging and may have considerable impact on the European economies. Recent trends towards more “liberal” policies still face opposition from national treasuries and “entrepreneurial” civil servants in charge of “government commercialization” initiatives which can result in anti-competitive practices which can hinder the growth of private sector competitors. Directives on PSI and Environmental Information. Will they address: “Cost of dissemination” standard vs. “reasonable price”. Restrictions/licenses on downstream use. Changes at the EU National Level: Changes at the EU National Level Netherlands: “Towards Optimum Availability of Public Sector Information” Electronic Government Action Programme (1999) Privatizes commercial arm of Met Service, liberalizes data access Great Britain: “Review of the Knowledge Driven Economy” http://ww.dti.gov.uk (6 Sept. 2000), adopts marginal cost pricing policy. New Freedom of Information Law. Reforms do not apply to “trading funds” (e.g. Met Service) An Emerging European Reform Trend?: An Emerging European Reform Trend? Sweden: Privatized the commercial arm of the Land Office, and adopted an open data policy for Land Office data. Considering possible separation of commercial arm of Met service, and liberalization of data policy for Meteorological data. Finland: Commercial arm of Met Service to be privatized. Germany: Pullback from commercial services to broadcast and print media. Considering possible separation/privatization of commercial arm? / Worldwide trends?: Worldwide trends? Japan – Japan Meteorological and Business Development Authority and JAPANSAT China – China Academy of Sciences study New Zealand – “Corporatization” of Weather Services with recognition of open data needs. Open access to Geodata. Australia – recognition of open data needs. Zillman research. Summary and Conclusions: Summary and Conclusions Emerging recognition in Europe that open access to government information is critical to the information society, environmental protection, and economic growth. Recent trend to more “liberal” policies faces opposition from “government commercialization” initiatives. “Government commercialization” cannot succeed in the face of economic realities and evenhanded application of competition policies. Open government information policies foster significant but not easily quantifiable economic benefits to society. Recommendations - 1: Recommendations - 1 Governments should support full, open and unrestricted international access to scientific data for public interest purposes -- particularly statistical, scientific, geographical, environmental, and meteorological information of great public benefit. Such efforts to improve the exploitation of public sector information contribute significantly to maximizing its commercial, scientific, research and environmental value. Governments should let the private sector lead in using public sector information to meet the diverse needs of citizens and users for such products and services. Meeting these needs demands entrepreneurial and publishing skills that are most evident in the private sector. Market needs are best served by open and unrestricted access to public sector information. Recommendations - 2: Recommendations - 2 Governments should avoid the imposition of government copyrights, limit fees to recouping the cost of dissemination, and eliminate restrictions on reuse. This will allow diverse entities to make new and innovative uses of public sector information. However, attribution of data sources should be made, e.g. through the use of trademarks or source mentioning. Governments should avoid asserting a monopoly on public sector information. Governments and societies both lose when governments treat their information as a commodity to be sold. Governments should maintain a strong freedom of information law. This fosters greater transparency and public trust in government.