WHERE DOES WEATHER COME FROM

Information about WHERE DOES WEATHER COME FROM

Published on April 7, 2008

Author: Clown

Source: authorstream.com

Content

WHERE DOES WEATHER COME FROM?:  WHERE DOES WEATHER COME FROM? Slide2:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS JET STREAMS VARIOUS CLIMATES WEATHER MAKERS AIR MASSES AND FRONTS TROPICAL CYCLONES OCEAN CURRENTS GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS EXPLAIN HOW AIR AND STORM SYSTEMS TRAVEL OVER THE EARTHS SURFACE THINK OF THE EARTH AS A HEAT PUMP. GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS IMAGINE A PLANET WITH NO ROTATION, TILT, OR WATER IN THIS WORLD, THE SUN WOULD ALWAYS BE DIRECTLY OVER THE EQUATOR AIR AT THE EQUATOR WOULD BECOME VERY HOT AND RISE INTO THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS THIS AIR WILL THEN MOVE TOWARD THE POLES WHERE IT WILL COOL AND SINK TO THE SURFACE THE COLD AIR WOULD THEN MOVE ALONG THE SURFACE TOWARD THE EQUATOR GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS THE RESULT IS ONE LARGE AREA OF HIGH PRESSURE AT THE POLES WITH A LARGE BELT OF LOW PRESSURE AT THE EQUATOR GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS HOWEVER…THE EARTH DOES ROTATE, IS TILTED, HAS WATER, AND HAS LAND MASSES. INSTEAD OF ONE LARGE CIRCULATION BETWEEN THE POLES AND EQUATOR…THERE ARE THREE LETS DISCUSS THESE. GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS HADLEY CELL THIS IS THE LOWEST LATITUDE CELL. SURFACE AIR MOVES TOWARD THE EQUATOR AND FROM EAST TO WEST. WHEN HEATED…THIS AIR RISES VERTICALLY AND THEN MOVES POLEWARD ALOFT. GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS FERREL CELL MID-LATITUDE CELL. SURFACE AIR MOVES TOWARD THE POLES AND FROM WEST TO EAST. ALOFT…AIR IS MOVING TOWARD THE EQUATOR. GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS POLAR CELL HIGHEST LATITUDE MOST CELL. SURFACE WIND MOVES TOWARD THE EQUATOR AND FROM EAST TO WEST. ALOFT…WINDS MOVE TOWARD THE POLES AND DESCEND WHEN THEY REACH THE POLES. GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONES (ITCZ) BELT OF LOW PRESSURE BETWEEN THE TWO HADLEY CELLS. SITUATED ROUGHLY NEAR THE EQUATOR. ASSOCIATED WITH RISING AIR. GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS:  GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS HORSE LATITUDES THE REGION AROUND 30 DEGREES BETWEEN THE HADLEY CELL AND FERREL CELL. THIS IS A BELT OF HIGH PRESSURE AT THE SURFACE WITH AIR DESCENDING FROM ABOVE. CALLED HORSE LATITUDES FOR A REASON JET STREAMS:  JET STREAMS JET STREAMS ARE RIVERS OF STRONG WINDS IN THE UPPER LEVELS OF THE ATMOSPHERE THAT BLOW WEST TO EAST. JET STREAMS FOLLOW THE BOUNDARIES BETWEEN HOT AND COLD AIR. JET STREAMS:  JET STREAMS JET STREAMS ARE STRONGEST DURING THE WINTER B/C THIS IS WHEN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE HOT AND COLD AIR IS STRONGEST. TWO TYPES OF JET STREAMS. POLAR JET…LOCATED BETWEEN THE FERREL CELL AND POLAR CELL (60ON) SUBTROPICAL JET…LOCATED BETWEEN THE HADLEY AND FERREL CELL (30ON) JET STREAMS:  JET STREAMS JET STREAMS MEANDER AROUND THE GLOBE, DIPPING AND RISING IN ALTITUDE/LATITUDE, SPLITTING AT TIMES AND FORMING EDDIES. JET STREAMS FOLLOW THE SUN’S ELEVATION ANGLE MOVING NORTH DURING THE SPRING AND SOUTH IN THE AUTUMN. CLIMATE:  CLIMATE WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE? WEATHER-VARIES FROM DAY TO DAY. CLIMATE-SAME TYPE OF CONDITIONS OVER THE YEARS. THE GLOBAL PATTERNS BASED UPON THE EARTH’S TILT, ROTATION AND LAND/SEA DISTRIBUTION ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR OUR CLIMATES CLIMATE:  CLIMATE CLIMATES ARE CATEGORIZED ACCORDING TO LATITUDE, PRECIPITATION, TEMPERATURE. TYPES OF CLIMATES: TROPICAL (15O-25O) WET (ALL YEAR LONG) MONSOON (NEARLY ALL RAIN DURING HOTTEST MONTHS) DRY WINTER SEASON (WET SEASON NOT THAT WET AND A PROLONGED DRY SEASON) CLIMATE:  CLIMATE TYPES OF CLIMATES: DRY CLIMATES (20O-35O) FOUND INSIDE LAND MASSES ARID (TRUE DESERT) SEMIARID (GRASSLAND)…RECEIVES MORE PRECIPITATION THAN ARID. CLIMATE:  CLIMATE TYPES OF CLIMATES: MOIST SUBTROPICAL MID-LATITUDE CLIMATES (30O-50O) WARM AND HUMID SUMMERS WITH MILD WINTERS. TYPICALLY FOUND ON THE EASTERN AND WESTERN SHORES OF MOST CONTINENTS. CLIMATE:  CLIMATE TYPES OF CLIMATES: MOIST CONTINENTAL MID-LATITUDE CLIMATES WARM TO COOL SUMMERS AND COLD, HARSH WINTERS. CLIMATE:  CLIMATE TYPES OF CLIMATES: POLAR CLIMATES YEAR ROUND COLD TEMPERATURES WHERE WARMEST MONTH IS COOLER THAN 50O HIGLANDS UNIQUE CLIMATE BASED ON ELEVATION. OCCUR IN MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN WHERE RAPID ELEVATION CHANGES CAUSE RAPID CLIMATIC CHANGES OVER SHORT DISTANCES. STOP PLEASE!!!:  STOP PLEASE!!! WEATHER PATTERNS:  WEATHER PATTERNS TROPICAL WEATHER OCEAN CURRENTS EL-NINO LA-NINA GULF STREAM AIR MASSES AND FRONTS TROPICAL WEATHER:  TROPICAL WEATHER TROPICAL CYCLONES WARM CORE LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS THAT DEVELOP OVER TROPICAL WATERS AND HAS AN ORGANIZED CIRCULATION. HAVE DIFFERENT NAMES ACROSS THE WORLD ATLANTIC/EASTERN PACIFIC - HURRICANES WESTERN PACIFIC – TYPHOONS INDIAN OCEAN - CYCLONES TROPICAL CYCLONES:  TROPICAL CYCLONES ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON JUNE 1ST TO NOVEMBER 30TH PEAK ACTIVITY IS EARLY TO MID SEPT TROPICAL CYCLONES:  TROPICAL CYCLONES TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION WARM OCEAN WATERS (>80O) HIGHLY UNSTABLE ATMOSPHERE MUST BE AT LEAST 300 MI AWAY FROM EQUATOR. WEAK VERTICAL WIND SHEAR A PRE-EXISTING SURFACE DISTURBANCE TROPICAL CYCLONES:  TROPICAL CYCLONES TYPES OF DISTURBANCES EASTERLY WAVES (TROPICAL WAVES) IS A REGION OF LOW PRESSURE MOVING WESTWARD. WEST AFRICAN DISTURBANCE LINE (WADL) IS A LINE OF CONVECTION THAT FORMS OVER WEST AFRICA AND MOVES INTO ATLANTIC. TROPICAL CYCLONES:  TROPICAL CYCLONES TYPES OF DISTURBANCES TROPICAL UPPER TROPOSPHERIC TROUGH (TUTT) IS A COLD CORE LOW THAT CAN DEVELOP INTO A WARM CORE TROPICAL CYCLONE OLD FRONTAL BOUNDARIES (OLD FRONTAL BOUNDARIES) IS A COLD FRONT THAT CAN STALL AND FORM INTO A CONVECTIVE COMPLEX. TROPICAL CYCLONES:  TROPICAL CYCLONES CLASSIFICATION TROPICAL DEPRESSION  ORGANIZED CONVECTION W/ A CENTER OF CIRCULATION AND MAX WINDS OF 38MPH. TROPICAL STORM WINDS BETWEEN 38-73MPH NAMES BEGIN AT THIS LEVEL TROPICAL CYCLONES:  TROPICAL CYCLONES CLASSIFICATION HURRICANES SAFFIR-SIMPSON SCALE CAT 1 (WINDS 74-95MPH) CAT 2 (WINDS 96-110MPH) CAT 3 (WINDS 111-130MPH) CAT 4 (WINDS 131-155MPH) CAT 5 (WINDS >155MPH) TROPICAL CYCLONES:  TROPICAL CYCLONES CLASSIFICATION HURRICANES FIRST SYSTEM OF THE SEASON BEGINS WITH THE LETTER “A”. ALTERNATE BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE NAMES. CAN BE EITHER FRENCH, ENGLISH, OR SPANISH. NAMES CAN BE REPEATED EVERY SIX YRS EXTREMELY DEVESTATING HURRICANES CAN HAVE THEIR NAMES RETIRED. OCEAN CURRENTS:  OCEAN CURRENTS CURRENTS CAN HAVE A BIG IMPACT UPON LOCAL WEATHER DUE TO WHERE THEY COME FROM. EXAMPLES: GULF STREAM OFF THE SE US AND THE CURRENT OFF THE COAST OF CALIFORNIA. EL-NINO/LA-NINA:  EL-NINO/LA-NINA NORMALLY, SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC ARE ABOUT 14O WARMER THAN THE EASTERN PACIFIC. EASTERN PACIFIC IS COOLER DUE TO UPWELLING. EL-NINO/LA-NINA:  EL-NINO/LA-NINA DURING EL-NINO, THE WATERS IN THE EASTERN PACIFIC ARE WARMER THAN NORMAL. EFFECTS INCLUDE: MORE RAINFALL IN THE EASTERN PACIFIC…DRIER IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC…WEAKER TRADE WINDS WHICH FAVOR TROPICAL DEVELOPMENT. EL-NINO/LA-NINA:  EL-NINO/LA-NINA LA NINA IS A CONDITION WHERE WATERS ARE COOLER THAN NORMAL ACROSS THE EASTERN PACIFIC. RESULTS INCLUDE STRONGER TRADE WINDS WHICH RESULT IN A PILING UP OF WATER ACROSS THE WESTERN PACIFIC. SO…HOW DOES THIS IMPACT US? Slide36:  EL NINO - WINTER Slide37:  EL NINO - SUMMER Slide38:  LA NINA - WINTER Slide39:  LA NINA - SUMMER AIR MASSES:  AIR MASSES AIR MASSES ARE LARGE BODIES OF AIR W/ SIMILAR TEMPERATURES AND HUMIDITIES. AIR MASSES FORM OVER “SOURCE REGIONS” WHEN AN AIR MASS STAYS UNDISTURBED OVER A PARTICULAR AREA IT WILL TAKE ON THE SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF THAT AREA. AIR MASSES:  AIR MASSES THE U.S. IS NOT A FAVORABLE SOURCE REGION B/C OF THE NUMBER OF DISTURBANCES THAT PREVENT THE AIR FROM STAGNATING. AIR MASSES:  AIR MASSES TYPICAL AIR MASSES THAT IMPACT THE U.S. INCLUDE POLAR LATITUDES CONTINENTAL AIR MASSES MARITIME AIR MASSES TROPICAL AIR MASSES AIR MASSES:  AIR MASSES BOUNDARIES BETWEEN TWO AIR MASSES ARE FRONTS. FRONTS ARE CLASSIFIED BY THE TYPE OF AIR MASS THAT IS REPLACING THE OTHER. FOUR TYPES OF FRONTS COLD FRONT WARM FRONT STATIONARY FRONT OCCLUDED FRONT AIR MASSES:  AIR MASSES FRONTS DON’T JUST EXIST AT THE SURFACE…THEY HAVE A VERTICAL PROFILE OR SLOPE. COLD FRONTS USUALLY MOVE FASTER THAN WARM FRONTS. AS A RESULT…THEY CAN CATCH UP TO A WARM FRONT. WHEN THE TWO MERGE…AN OCCLUDED FRONT RESULTS. AIR MASSES:  AIR MASSES FRONTS ARE DETECTED ON WEATHER MAPS IN THREE WAYS: SHARP WIND SHIFT NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE/HUMIDITY LOWER PRESSURE

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