Published on December 31, 2007
Why Famine and What Can Be Done?: Why Famine and What Can Be Done? Today and For the Future Valerie Rhoe What is a Famine?: What is a Famine? Catastrophic disruption to the social, economic, and institutional system Food production Food distribution Food consumption Theories of Famine: Theories of Famine Malthusian Theory Distributional theories Immediate Causes: Immediate Causes Drought Flooding Cyclones Low level of crop planting Why Vulnerable to Famine?: Why Vulnerable to Famine? Chronic poverty Inadequate policies Armed conflict Corruption Environmental degradation HIV/AIDS Slide6: Spectrum of Policies for Mitigating Famine Questions to Ask Before Mitigation: Questions to Ask Before Mitigation What interventions should be implemented? When will their implementation be most effective? Immediate Relief: Immediate Relief Quickly make food available to those suffering most Distribute food to people where they live Target the most affecter areas first Within area, aim assistance at the neediest HH Use standardize & formal guidelines for distribution Invest in health services Recovery : Recovery Assess famine vulnerability in all areas Labor-intensive public works programs Target public work schemes to poor HHs Provide food as payments Implement supplementary programs Private sector employment schemes Develop public & private partnerships Initiating Development: Initiating Development Deliver agricultural inputs to farmers Introduce appropriate agricultural technologies Encourage farmers to produce staple food crops Develop institutions to improve farmer’s access to and use of new technologies & assets Policy Issues: Policy Issues Get the right combination and sequence Monitor and evaluate Coordinate the actions Work towards long-term prevention and food security Sequence of Activities: Price Stabilization Food Aid Employment Programs Private Food Marketing Ag Tech, Policies, & Institutions RELIEF RECOVERY Credit INITIATING DEVELOPMENT Sequence of Activities Preventing Famine: Short-Term Recommendations : Preventing Famine: Short-Term Recommendations Produce fast-growing foods Make available fertilizer & improved seeds Disseminate knowledge on crop management Incentive to produce staple crops Create or augment strategic grain reserves Establish an array of safety net programs Preventing Famine: Medium-Term Recommendations: Preventing Famine: Medium-Term Recommendations Develop low-external-input farming tech Develop profitable small-scale irrigation tech Extend credit & microfinance programs Empower women Focus agricultural extension on food security & social development Preventing Famine: Medium-Term Recommendations: Preventing Famine: Medium-Term Recommendations Develop technologies that increase labor productivity and profitability Enhance market information systems Increase regional and global trade Identify, develop and expand markets Follow good governance practices Develop the rural non-farm sector Preventing Famine: Long-Term Recommendations : Preventing Famine: Long-Term Recommendations Develop staple crop hybrid varieties Create road infrastructure Reduce the role of parastatal agencies In-class Discussion: In-class Discussion What are the basic activities of the program? How has this program effected society (poverty, health, education,hunger)? What are the problems with this program? Can this program help prevent famine? If so, how?