WMCh3

Information about WMCh3

Published on January 10, 2008

Author: Obama

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Chapter 3. Africa:  Chapter 3. Africa diaspora—“the breaking up and scattering of a people” The African Continent :  The African Continent the Maghrib, north of the Sahara Desert sub-Saharan Africa Postal Workers:  Postal Workers The letter is slapped rhythmically several times as it is brought to the table to be cancelled. The marker makes another rhythmic sound as it is inked and then stamped on the letter. Another man clicks a pair of scissors. Another man whistles and can be joined by other workers who may also wish to whistle. Generalizations about African Music-Culture:  Generalizations about African Music-Culture Music-Making Events Expression in Many Media Musical Style History Participation Training Beliefs and Values Intercultural Misunderstanding Music-Making Events :  Music-Making Events “African music often happens in social situations where people’s primary goals are not artistic” (not art for art’s sake). CD 1:1 is an example of work music, that is, not a musical performance as such, but rather music that helps coordinate the efforts of the workers. Expression in Many Media:  Expression in Many Media African music may also be associated with other expressive media (drama, dance, poetry, etc). Musical Style:  Musical Style European musical qualities—duple-metered melodies based on a seven-note major scale (G A B C D E F# G) and related Western harmony, African stylistic features—polyrhythm, repetition, and improvisation. History:  History “The music-cultures of Europe, Asia and the Americas have strongly affected those in Africa.” Participation:  Participation Musicians in Africa often welcome participation in the music-making process. Training :  Training enculturation—the process of learning one’s own culture gradually during childhood.” Beliefs and Values :  Beliefs and Values music is a necessary and normal part of life Intercultural Misunderstanding:  Intercultural Misunderstanding A person from a concert-music-culture (most Westerners) is used to thinking of music as an event separate from daily life and often created as art for art’s sake An African may make musical sounds with his community that are the voices of his ancestors. Abekor (ah-gbeh´-kaw)::  Abekor (ah-gbeh´-kaw): Music and Dance of the Ewe People The Ewe (eh´-way) People —History:  The Ewe (eh´-way) People —History After escaping in the 1600s from Agokoli, the tyrannical king of Notsie, the Ewe-speakers founded settlements near the mouth of the Volta River territorial divisions headed by a chief The unit of Ewe social life is the extended family The Ewe (eh´-way) People — Religious Philosophy:  The Ewe (eh´-way) People — Religious Philosophy Religion has an “all-pervasive influence on the intimate life of the family and community.” All things in nature and “artificial protuberances are worshipped as divine or the abode of divinities.” “Ancestral spirits are an important force in the lives of the Ewe people The Ewe (eh´-way) People — Legends of Origin:  The Ewe (eh´-way) People — Legends of Origin This type of drumming and dancing was “inspired by hunters’ observations of monkeys in the forest.” The Ewe (eh´-way) People — Agbekor as War Drumming :  The Ewe (eh´-way) People — Agbekor as War Drumming War drumming to prepare for a war or to communicate the results of a war. The Ewe (eh´-way) People — The Meaning of the Name Agbekor:  The Ewe (eh´-way) People — The Meaning of the Name Agbekor agbe = “life,” kor = “clear” agbekor means “enjoying life” or “clear life” (after a battle was over) The Ewe (eh´-way) People — Learning:  The Ewe (eh´-way) People — Learning “In Ewe music-culture, most music and dance is learned through enculturation. Agbekor, however, requires “special training” which means “members of an Agbekor group practice in a secluded area for up to a year Agbekor is learned through simulated performance The Ewe (eh´-way) People — Performing Organizations:  The Ewe (eh´-way) People — Performing Organizations carried on by drum and dance societies of several types: mutual aid organizations, school and civic youth groups, and theatrical performing companies.” Music of the Percussion Ensemble CD 1:16, Agbekor Demonstration.:  Music of the Percussion Ensemble CD 1:16, Agbekor Demonstration. (0:00) the bell plays a repeating seven-stroke pattern of long and short tones: L S L L L S L -- 11 times total. (0:36) axatse (ah-ha´-tseh), “rattle,” enters (1:10) kaganu (kah-gahng), highest pitched (1:44) kidi (kee´dee), below the kaganu (2:16) kloboto (kloh-boh-toh), below kidi (2:49) totodzi (toh-toh-dzee), lowest pitch Tempo, Pulsation, and Time-Feels:  Tempo, Pulsation, and Time-Feels Background units: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Four-Feel Beats: _____ _____ _____ ______ Six-Feel Beats: __ __ __ __ __ __ Two ways Agbekor drummers strike a drum skin::  Two ways Agbekor drummers strike a drum skin: Bounce strokes at which the stick bounces off the drum skin, producing a ringing sound Press strokes at which the stick presses the drum skin, producing a muted sound Drum Language:  Drum Language “Usually only drummers know the texts. Even Ewe speakers cannot understand drum language just by hearing the music—they must be told.” Songs CD 1:15:  Songs CD 1:15 Texts: war Structural Features: Call-and-response intonation seems aimed at pitch areas rather than precise pitch points. Melodic motion [contour] usually conforms to the rise and fall of speech tones.” Mande Jaliya, “Lambango” CD 1:17 -- Timbre. :  Mande Jaliya, “Lambango” CD 1:17 -- Timbre. vocal solo kora (a twenty-one-string bridge-harp) percussion/spoken interjections. griots (gree´-oh) or jalolu:  griots (gree´-oh) or jalolu professional “sound artisans” of the Mande ethnic tradition “counselors to royalty, entertainers for the public, and guardians of history.” Historical and Social Background:  Historical and Social Background The Mande live in the West African savanna “Routes of intercultural communication run” through this area in all directions. Mali:  Mali The Mali was a “centralized, hierarchically organized empire with distinct social classes.” The jalolu had a secure place within the Mali empire serving wealthy patrons. Kingdoms Along the Gambia:  Kingdoms Along the Gambia “modeled on the much larger empires of the Upper Niger. prospered through trade with Europe—notably slaves for manufactured goods.” Music-Culture:  Music-Culture Being freeborn (not slave), jalolu are craft specialists who are separate from non-specialists (royals, merchants, etc) The basic duty of a jali was to accompany a king and sing his praises Males learn the craft of playing a musical instrument—kora, xylophone (balo) or long-neck lute (konting, ngoni, or guitar)—“through a formal apprenticeship with a single master.” Females learn to sing through more informal apprenticeships and set the standard in singing. Elements of Performance—Kora:  Elements of Performance—Kora a 21-stringed harp-like instrument with the strings pulled over a bridge The neck passes straight through a skin-covered resonator. chordophone Elements:  Elements kumbengo, an instrumental ostinato. Virtuosic instrumental passages (birimintingo) ostinato refers to a constantly repeating pattern Lambango” on CD 1:17 :  Lambango” on CD 1:17 (0:00–0:25) Kuyateh stops her tuneful style (donkilo) by about 0:25 (0:34–3:02) She continues on in a less tuneful, speaking style (saturo) at about 0:34. A Drummer of Dagbon:  A Drummer of Dagbon Dagbamba people live in the southern savanna of western Africa. The Dagbamba live in Ghana a little over 200 miles northwest of the Ewe people. Dagbamba drummers are called lunsi (loon´-see) singular luna (loong´-ah) and are members of a hereditary clan of drummers. Some of the duties of the lunsi are “verbal artist, genealogist, counselor to royalty, cultural expert, entertainer. . . . The Drums :  The Drums the gungon (goong-gawng´) a cylindrical drum with a snare (drum skin) on each end the luna (loong´-ah), an hourglass-shaped drum (also with snares on both ends) which the drummer can alter in pitch by squeezing the leather cords strung between its two drum heads. a shoulder strap holds each kind of drum in position to receive strokes from a curved wooden stick. A Praise Name Dance “Nag Biegu” CD 1:18 (2:08):  A Praise Name Dance “Nag Biegu” CD 1:18 (2:08) “Ferocious Wild Bull” praises a king of Dagbon in the late 1800s (Naa Abdulai). Life Story: Abubakari Lunna:  Life Story: Abubakari Lunna After studying drumming with his father, he was sent to learn from a “teaching-father.” Through a period of master-apprenticeship, Mr. Lunna continued his studies with his “teaching-father,” Mba Ngolba. When “Father” Ngolba died, he insisted that Mr. Luna have his personal luna. Shona: History:  Shona: History Shona live in Zimbabwe among the sixty million Bantu-speaking people decentralized, agricultural people Shona Spirits:  Shona Spirits Mbira music helps connect the living with their ancestral spirits who can help and advise the living. These spirits can enter the body of a living person through possession trances. The Mbira:  The Mbira thin, long keys (“tongues”) produce the mbira’s tones idiophone Essay: Discuss the Shona mbira music:  Essay: Discuss the Shona mbira music Interlocking parts - polyphony Collective Improvisation Polyrhythmic interplay Audience Participation -- Hand clapping, singing … Spirit possession “Nhemamusasa”:  “Nhemamusasa” CD 1:19, music played on the mbira by Shona speakers a participatory polyphonic community—meaning that the participants create many (“poly”) sounds (“phonic”), or independent voices, that collectively fit together to create the music. “Nhemamusasa” (neh´-mah-moo-sah´-sah) CD 1:19:  “Nhemamusasa” (neh´-mah-moo-sah´-sah) CD 1:19 texture kushaura, the main part, kutsinhira interwoven second part Nhemamusasa—Rhythm:  Nhemamusasa—Rhythm polyrhythyms: two different pieces of music being played at the same time Nyarai -- CD1:20 Euro American musical features:  Nyarai -- CD1:20 Euro American musical features studio-produced music using popular music instruments (regular and bass guitars, drums) metrical two-beat throughout all the parts (not polymetric) accompanying Western-type harmonic progression popular music form based on repeating sections Nyarai -- Traditional African musical features:  Nyarai -- Traditional African musical features intricate, rhythmic interlocking of guitar parts (mbira-influenced) collective improvisation polyrhythmic interplay among instruments African language lyrics present a praise poem for “warriors, their leaders, their families, and their supporters.” The BaAka (bah´-ka) People Singing: “Makala”:  The BaAka (bah´-ka) People Singing: “Makala” “Pygmies” Forest People Three Images of the Forest People :  Three Images of the Forest People Primal Eden: a simple, unspoiled, and innocent utopia Primitive Savage: primitive savagery, an “earlier stage” in evolution; a way of life associated with the Stone Age. Unique Culture in a Global Village: non-literate, non-industrial, with an unspecialized division of labor and a cashless barter/subsistence economy, in a homogeneous society with small-scale, decentralized social institutions and egalitarian social relations. CD 1:21 “Makala” (mah´-kah-lah), a Mabo (mah´-boh) Song:  CD 1:21 “Makala” (mah´-kah-lah), a Mabo (mah´-boh) Song Setting: a performance event (eboka) of Mabo, “a type of music and dance associated with net hunting.” Form and Texture: “sections of singing, drumming and dancing. Each song has a theme, that is, a text and a tune. Timbre: Men and women of all ages sing “Makala” Theme: obscured by polyphony improvisation on the melodic theme is encouraged Polyphony in “Makala” CD 1:21:  Polyphony in “Makala” CD 1:21 heterophony—“many simultaneous versions of a tune” drone/ostinato—“reiteration of a rhythmic pattern on very few pitches” layering—“parts with distinct polyphonic functions arranged according to pitch range” Polyphony in “Makala”:  Polyphony in “Makala” counterpoint—distinctive countermelodies, often in the yodeling parts.” accompaniment—“two drum parts and hand clapping.” the continuously repeating drum pattern the rhythmical interlocking of all the parts the interweaving of the melody’s four defining pitches (D, C, Bb, G) Music-Culture as an Adaptive Resource:  Music-Culture as an Adaptive Resource Their communal singing “wakes the forest,” and restores their balance with nature. “Improvised, open-ended polyphony” reinforces cooperation and other communal values Individuals within the BaAka community stand out; the identity of composers of particular songs and repertories is known Conclusion as Discussion:  Conclusion as Discussion I would try to immerse myself completely in the local culture I would expect to find highly developed and respected traditions of musical I would immediately begin to learn how to play the music

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Obama

canada powerpoint
22. 04. 2008
0 views

canada powerpoint

HealthCommitteePrese ntation
02. 04. 2008
0 views

HealthCommitteePrese ntation

greek architecture
10. 01. 2008
0 views

greek architecture

francegroup3presenta tionperfume
10. 01. 2008
0 views

francegroup3presenta tionperfume

info session
10. 01. 2008
0 views

info session

schiffman04
15. 01. 2008
0 views

schiffman04

Formula1 Final Presentation
16. 01. 2008
0 views

Formula1 Final Presentation

TGSITW
17. 01. 2008
0 views

TGSITW

Studio Design Safety
19. 01. 2008
0 views

Studio Design Safety

Barcelona
21. 01. 2008
0 views

Barcelona

Knotweed Biology and Control
22. 01. 2008
0 views

Knotweed Biology and Control

angola
14. 01. 2008
0 views

angola

poverty AROUND THE WORLD
23. 01. 2008
0 views

poverty AROUND THE WORLD

BB86slides
04. 02. 2008
0 views

BB86slides

Lecture406
11. 01. 2008
0 views

Lecture406

Human Dimensions
21. 01. 2008
0 views

Human Dimensions

ATPDEABrenda Jacosbs
22. 01. 2008
0 views

ATPDEABrenda Jacosbs

job safety
18. 01. 2008
0 views

job safety

Integration
28. 01. 2008
0 views

Integration

mylilref
29. 01. 2008
0 views

mylilref

Chinese Wedding
29. 01. 2008
0 views

Chinese Wedding

chap6sjt
30. 01. 2008
0 views

chap6sjt

hemal thesis talk
05. 02. 2008
0 views

hemal thesis talk

Managing stress
07. 02. 2008
0 views

Managing stress

Summit 08 Endversion 1
08. 03. 2008
0 views

Summit 08 Endversion 1

IPRs
19. 03. 2008
0 views

IPRs

97 12 02
20. 03. 2008
0 views

97 12 02

week 02
21. 02. 2008
0 views

week 02

15 southcom
31. 03. 2008
0 views

15 southcom

Tour of Africa
07. 04. 2008
0 views

Tour of Africa

Sarah Ryu
28. 03. 2008
0 views

Sarah Ryu

HomeCompostingSlides
14. 01. 2008
0 views

HomeCompostingSlides

Info20061026 47422
15. 04. 2008
0 views

Info20061026 47422

barach
07. 02. 2008
0 views

barach

SheepMgmtDuringDroug ht
24. 01. 2008
0 views

SheepMgmtDuringDroug ht

Presentation1 DCSF
22. 04. 2008
0 views

Presentation1 DCSF

michos 10b02
24. 04. 2008
0 views

michos 10b02

OperationIraqiFreedom 01 07
22. 01. 2008
0 views

OperationIraqiFreedom 01 07

WOODEN HOMES CATALOGUE 2007
23. 01. 2008
0 views

WOODEN HOMES CATALOGUE 2007

SAFIT2RM 5
08. 05. 2008
0 views

SAFIT2RM 5

2008 Olympic
30. 04. 2008
0 views

2008 Olympic

WwR Class10 061026
02. 05. 2008
0 views

WwR Class10 061026

c21 leading discussions 10040
25. 01. 2008
0 views

c21 leading discussions 10040

venue r2
02. 05. 2008
0 views

venue r2

SP AdelaideASApresent3
28. 01. 2008
0 views

SP AdelaideASApresent3

SPIE04 5488 46
09. 01. 2008
0 views

SPIE04 5488 46

evos customer training
07. 03. 2008
0 views

evos customer training

InterPlanetary IFAkyildiz
11. 01. 2008
0 views

InterPlanetary IFAkyildiz

0711MILLER
03. 04. 2008
0 views

0711MILLER

Sundari Poster
11. 02. 2008
0 views

Sundari Poster

2003 03 28 Prophecy Update
03. 03. 2008
0 views

2003 03 28 Prophecy Update

annapoorna English
15. 02. 2008
0 views

annapoorna English

Echevarria
14. 01. 2008
0 views

Echevarria

PlatosRepublic
29. 01. 2008
0 views

PlatosRepublic

PercGestalt2005
14. 01. 2008
0 views

PercGestalt2005

photorealism
25. 02. 2008
0 views

photorealism