Published on August 29, 2007
Radio continuum, CO, and thermal infrared emission in nearby star-forming galaxies: Radio continuum, CO, and thermal infrared emission in nearby star-forming galaxies Tony Wong CSIRO Australia Telescope andamp; University of New South Wales SMA meeting, 13 Jun 2005 With A. Hughes2, R. Ekers1, R. Paladino3, M. Murgia3,4, L. Blitz5, T. Helfer5, L. Moscadelli3, L. Gregorini4, L. Staveley-Smith1, M. Filipovic6, Y. Sofue7, N. Mizuno7 1ATNF, 2Swinburne U., 3INAF-Cagliari, 4CNR Italy, 5UC Berkeley, 6U. Western Sydney, 7Nagoya U. The Radio/FIR Correlation: The Radio/FIR Correlation Amazingly tight correlation (factor of 2 scatter over andgt;4 orders of magnitude) Correlation persists even when normalizing by mass (Xu et al. 1994). Correlation of radio with FIR better than with other SF tracers (e.g. UV, H). Has been used as redshift indicator (Carilli andamp; Yun 1999) and to identify high-redshift submm galaxies. Yun, Reddy, andamp; Condon 2001 LMC Why It’s Surprising: Why It’s Surprising Courtesy Ron Ekers High Correlation! UV Grain props LMC images: LMC images IRAS 60µm image processed via HIRES algorithm (courtesy J. Surace, IPAC) ATCA + Parkes 1.4 GHz continuum image (courtesy M. Wolleben andamp; L. Staveley-Smith) ATCA + Parkes 21cm HI image (Kim et al. 2003) NANTEN CO image (courtesy Fukui et al., Nagoya U.) SHASSA H image (Gaustad et al. 2001) To examine correlations as a function of size scale, we compared several images, all at ~1’-2’ resolution: 1.4 GHz Continuum and HI: 1.4 GHz Continuum and HI FIR and CO: FIR and CO Wavelet filtered images: Wavelet filtered images The Pet Hat Wavelet: The Pet Hat Wavelet The 'Pet Hat' wavelet is essentially an annulus in the Fourier plane that picks out structure on a certain scale. 5 kl 20' Frick et al. (2001) An Example: An Example 30º 0º LMC Subregion: LMC Subregion Each image 2° square LMC Subregion: LMC Subregion Each image 2° square Correlations Compared: Correlations Compared Best correlations among 60 µm, H, and 1.4 GHz. Correlations with gas tracers (CO, HI) degrade below ~200 pc (12.5 arcmin). Correlations Compared: Correlations Compared Best correlations among 60 µm, H, and 1.4 GHz. Results even more pronounced for galaxy as a whole. Correlations with gas tracers degrade below ~1 kpc. LMC Results: LMC Results We have examined the correlations between FIR, 1.4 GHz radio, CO, H, and HI emission in the LMC from scales of 2’ (40 pc) to 4° (4 kpc). Best correlations are between the 'star formation tracers' FIR, 1.4 GHz, and H, beginning to break down only scales of andlt;0.1 kpc. Correlation of FIR and 1.4 GHz with cold gas tracers (e.g., HI) relatively poor on sub-kpc scales. Problem for B-gas coupling? Caveat is larger fraction of thermal emission in the LMC (~50% at 1.4 GHz, Haynes et al. 1991). The CO/RC Correlation : The CO/RC Correlation CO/RC ratio map RC vs. CO fluxes Murgia et al. (2005) Spiral Galaxies: Spiral Galaxies NGC 4736 NGC 7331 RC vs. mid-IR: RC vs. mid-IR Although correlation between 24 µm and 1.4 GHz emission is good on a pixel-by-pixel basis, a drop in scale-dependent correlation is often seen on scales of andlt; 2 kpc. RC vs. CO: RC vs. CO The correlation between CO and 1.4 GHz emission is better in some galaxies and worse in others, but also shows breakdown in the 1-2 kpc range. mid-IR vs. CO: mid-IR vs. CO The best correlation is probably between 24 µm and CO emission, although still breaking down on sub-kpc scales. Caveats: Caveats 24 µm emission dominated by dust heated by SF; may exclude diffuse emission from cooler dust that contributes to overall FIR flux. Sensitivity of RC images to bright point sources (e.g. nuclear or background AGN), which contribute power on all scales. Possibility of missing interferometer spacings (e.g. combining VLA B- and D-arrays) Signal-to-noise differs between images, producing an artificial decorrelation in wavelet analysis. Conclusions: Conclusions 1.4 GHz radio emission in LMC: mostly thermal? Similarity of FIR, RC, H suggest they all trace recent SF. Overall synchrotron weak (andlt;~50%) and may be dominated by compact SNRs (Klein et al. 1989). Lack of synchrotron (compared to massive gals) could be due to greater ease of cosmic ray escape (e.g. Chi andamp; Wolfendale 1990). In nearby spirals, correlations of radio continuum with mid-IR and CO break down at 1-2 kpc scales. Non-thermal emission neither correlating with recent star formation nor tightly coupled to molecular clouds. Need better radio images andamp; thermal/non-thermal separation. Role of Sub-mm Observations: Role of Sub-mm Observations Does non-thermal RC trace the interface between strong CR flux and strong B field? Can compare with classic 'PDR' tracers such as CI and CII. CI: 3P13P0 transition (492 GHz): ncr~103 cm-3, ∆E~24 K, ~0.1-1. In well-shielded regions, CI abundance may be enhanced due to cosmic ray heating (e.g. Flower et al. 1994). Importance of cold (T andlt; 20 K) dust Coldest dust dominates at sub-mm wavelengths and correlates with HI+H2: how well does it correlate with radio continuum? Examine low Lfir/Lopt regions at andgt;100µm to assess importance of dust heating by old stars andamp; its effect on correlation.