Wongf food overview

Information about Wongf food overview

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Laurie

Source: authorstream.com

Content

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Ranking of Food Hazards:  The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Ranking of Food Hazards ranking* 1. microbial contamination 2. naturally occurring toxicants 3. environmental contaminants (e.g., metals 4. nutritional problems (i.e., malnutrition, undernutrition) 5. pesticide residues 6. food additives *1 being most dangerous, 6 least dangerous Definitions:  Definitions Infection Intoxication Metabolic food disorder Allergy Idiopathic illness Foodborne disease is any illness resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with one or more disease-producing agents. These include bacteria, parasites, viruses, fungi and their products as well as toxic substances not of microbial origin. Risks — perception vs. reality:  Risks — perception vs. reality What is the likelihood that you will die of foodborne illness? Deaths per year from selected causes in the United States (NCHS, 1986) All causes 2,105,361 Ischemic heart disease 520,729 All cancers 476,106 Heart attack (acute myocardial infarction 261,002 Motor vehicle accidents 47,885 Diabetes mellitus 37,184 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (alcohol not mentioned) 13,867 Firearm assaults, including handguns 13,029 Falling (accidental) 11,444 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (alcoholic) 11,060 Choking on a piece of food 3,692 Firearm accidents, including handguns 1,452 Intestinal infectious diseases 466 — A one-in-a-million risk of death in the U.S. in 1986 — 242 Salmonella infections 102 Lightning 78 Botulism 3 Outbreaks vs. Cases:  Outbreaks vs. Cases Foodborne disease outbreak: an incident in which two or more persons experienced a similar illness after ingestion of a common food, and epidemiologic analysis implicated a food as the source of illness. Foodborne disease case: one individual experiences illness after ingestion of an epidemiologically incriminated food. Estimates of the yearly incidence of foodborne illness:  Estimates of the yearly incidence of foodborne illness The estimates vary greatly but thought to be around 76 million cases per year Cost estimates range from $5–23 billion per year High cost due to many factors: medical care, investigation of illness, loss of productivity, loss of business, legal activities Infection:  Infection Definition: a disease state caused by the presence of viable, usually multiplying organisms at the site of inflammation Bacteria - Salmonella, Campylobacter Virus - hepatitis A, Norwalk virus Protozoa - Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora other parasites - Trichinella spiralis Intoxication:  Intoxication Definition: a disease state, caused by exposure to a toxic chemical, that is not mediated immunologically and is not primarily the result of a genetic deficiency. Staphylococcal food poisoning, botulism Saxitoxin, ciguatera Examples of foodborne infections/intoxications:  Examples of foodborne infections/intoxications Disease Reservoir Botulism food intoxication Soil contaminated foods Campylobacteriosis Cattle, poultry, shellfish Clostridium perfringens Soil contaminated foods food poisoning Salmonellosis Animals and birds Staphylococcal food poisoning Human carriers Vibrio parahaemolyticus Seafoods infection Yersinia enterocolitica Animal intestines infection Metabolic food disorder:  Metabolic food disorder Definition: a disease state caused by exposure to a chemical that is toxic to certain individuals only because they exhibit some genetic deficiency lactose intolerance favism Allergy:  Allergy Definition: a disease state caused by exposure to a particular chemical that (often proteinaceous) to which certain individuals have a heightened sensitivity (hypersensitivity) that has an immunological basis proteins (heat resistant and resistant to digestion) cow’s milk: b-lactoglobulin, casein, etc. egg-ovalbumin small molecules penicillin Idiopathic illness:  Idiopathic illness Definition: any illness of uncertain pathogenesis that may possibly but not certainly be due to foods; also, any food-caused illness that does not fit into one of the other categories Chinese restaurant syndrome celiac disease hyperkinesis Objectives of foodborne disease surveillance:  Objectives of foodborne disease surveillance prevention and control: identification of contaminated products knowledge of disease causation: observe the track record of various illness-causing agents administrative guidance: assessment of trends to justify regulatory decisions/actions Information reported to and compiled by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC):  Information reported to and compiled by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Outbreaks of known etiology = where laboratory evidence indicated a specific agent Outbreaks of unknown etiology = where epidemiological evidence implicated foodborne transmission, but the etiological agent was not identified. 4 subgroups based on incubation period: < 1 hr = probable chemical poisoning 1 – 7 hr = probable Staphylococcus aureus poisoning 8 – 14 hr = probable Clostridium perfringens food poisoning > 14 hr = probably other infectious/toxic agents Outbreaks of known vehicle = a particular food item was associated with the illness Number of reported foodborne-disease outbreaks, cases, and deaths, by etiology — United States, 1993–1997:  Number of reported foodborne-disease outbreaks, cases, and deaths, by etiology — United States, 1993–1997 Bacterial 655 (23.8) 43,821 (50.9) 28 (96.6) Chemical 148 (5.4) 576 (0.7) 0 (0) Parasitic 19 (0.7) 2,325 (2.7) 0 (0) Viral 56 (2.0) 4,066 (4.7) 0 (0) Confirmed etiology 878 (31.9) 50,788 (59.0) 28 (96.6) Unknown etiology 1,873 (68.1) 35,270 (41.0) 1 (3.4) Total 1993–1997 2,751 (100.0) 86,058 (100.0) 29 (100.0) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) Outbreaks Cases Deaths ex MMWR Table 1, Vol. 49/No. SS-1, p. 11 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss4901a1.htm Estimated illnesses for known foodborne pathogens, United States:  Estimated illnesses for known foodborne pathogens, United States Disease or agent Estimated total cases Bacteria 5,204,934 Parasites 2,541,316 Viruses 30,883,391 Grand Total 38,629,641 ex Mead, P. S., L. Slutskaer, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(5):607–625 (1999). http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/mead.htm Top Twelve Factors Contributing to 345 Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease Caused by Mishandling and/or Mistreatment of Foods in Homes in the U.S., 1973–1982:  Top Twelve Factors Contributing to 345 Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease Caused by Mishandling and/or Mistreatment of Foods in Homes in the U.S., 1973–1982 Ranking Contributing Factor Percent* 1. Contaminated raw food/ingredient 42.0 2. Inadequate cooking/canning/heat processing 31.3 3. Obtained food from unsafe source 28.7 4. Improper cooling 22.3 5. Lapse of 12 or more hours between preparing and eating 12.8 6. Colonized person handling implicated food 9.9 7. Mistaken for food 7.0 8. Improper fermentations 4.6 9. Inadequate reheating 3.5 10. Toxic containers 3.5 11. Improper hot holding 3.2 12. Cross-contamination 3.2 *Percentage exceeds 100 because multiple factors contribute to single outbreak “The World Health Organization’s Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation”:  “The World Health Organization’s Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation” 1. Choose foods processed for safety 2. Cook food thoroughly 3. Eat cooked foods immediately. 4. Store cooked foods carefully. 5. Reheat cooked foods thoroughly. 6. Avoid contact between raw and cooked foods. 7. Wash hands repeatedly. 8. Keep all kitchen surfaces meticulously clean. 9. Protect foods from insects, rodents, and other animals. 10. Use pure water. The future and foodborne illness:  The future and foodborne illness Demographics Human behavior changing Technology changing Global market Populations sensitive to foodborne disease:  Populations sensitive to foodborne disease Pregnant women Neonates Elderly (over 65) Residents in nursing home or related care facilities Cancer patients (nonhospitalized) Organ transplant patients AIDS patients The aging population:  The aging population Population:  Population Earth’s increasing population 1900 1.7 billion people 1998 6.0 billion people 2050 8.2 billion people (medium population projection) Future water usage:  Future water usage Competition between agriculture, industry, and personal households. Modern agriculture accounts for 70–80% of water usage.

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Laurie

Biofilm Dynamics
29. 10. 2007
0 views

Biofilm Dynamics

Lazarus Suellen
13. 04. 2008
0 views

Lazarus Suellen

SCOR OverviewEC
30. 03. 2008
0 views

SCOR OverviewEC

FAOCS new program
27. 03. 2008
0 views

FAOCS new program

skawinski
18. 03. 2008
0 views

skawinski

Photonics1
14. 03. 2008
0 views

Photonics1

KoreaVisualsIR English
12. 03. 2008
0 views

KoreaVisualsIR English

memberbenefits
11. 03. 2008
0 views

memberbenefits

Basics of Molecular Imaging
04. 03. 2008
0 views

Basics of Molecular Imaging

CI and Dev DEF 2
26. 02. 2008
0 views

CI and Dev DEF 2

wright
03. 10. 2007
0 views

wright

chhimala
03. 10. 2007
0 views

chhimala

Ch 7 MM
01. 12. 2007
0 views

Ch 7 MM

stress reduction
05. 12. 2007
0 views

stress reduction

ML inventory
10. 12. 2007
0 views

ML inventory

Aircraft fuel systems
07. 11. 2007
0 views

Aircraft fuel systems

AFG 04 MODELO PRACTICO SEPT 2006
12. 11. 2007
0 views

AFG 04 MODELO PRACTICO SEPT 2006

Neurosurgery
14. 11. 2007
0 views

Neurosurgery

Derek Matthews
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Derek Matthews

lrn11retrieval
15. 11. 2007
0 views

lrn11retrieval

Osteoarthritis Atlanta
13. 12. 2007
0 views

Osteoarthritis Atlanta

Till
25. 12. 2007
0 views

Till

POL103 6th presentation Iran
29. 12. 2007
0 views

POL103 6th presentation Iran

Parasitology CNS Cestoda
07. 01. 2008
0 views

Parasitology CNS Cestoda

liste prix coffre
05. 01. 2008
0 views

liste prix coffre

3 Social Movements
27. 12. 2007
0 views

3 Social Movements

DanceW
23. 11. 2007
0 views

DanceW

8 Predator Prey
01. 01. 2008
0 views

8 Predator Prey

teliasonera finland
19. 02. 2008
0 views

teliasonera finland

JeepProfilemktg374
16. 11. 2007
0 views

JeepProfilemktg374

QLogic2005
01. 01. 2008
0 views

QLogic2005

Turkey Starting Conference
23. 11. 2007
0 views

Turkey Starting Conference

Fujii
30. 12. 2007
0 views

Fujii

APres ANS propostas
29. 12. 2007
0 views

APres ANS propostas

Pulerwitz
04. 01. 2008
0 views

Pulerwitz

Matthew 2
01. 10. 2007
0 views

Matthew 2

CLADE07 barla
03. 01. 2008
0 views

CLADE07 barla

Summary
04. 12. 2007
0 views

Summary

Se parlassimo tutti Celtico4
05. 11. 2007
0 views

Se parlassimo tutti Celtico4

geese
16. 11. 2007
0 views

geese

635 Techno010514
20. 11. 2007
0 views

635 Techno010514

CH05 65 CharitableFunds slides
02. 11. 2007
0 views

CH05 65 CharitableFunds slides

ERL07 May17 07
21. 11. 2007
0 views

ERL07 May17 07

gca powerpoint
04. 10. 2007
0 views

gca powerpoint

donacijahupt
28. 11. 2007
0 views

donacijahupt

BIPN100 Lecture4
02. 11. 2007
0 views

BIPN100 Lecture4