Published on August 13, 2007
Personality and Job Burnout: Personality and Job Burnout Can Coping Skills Reduce Job Burnout? Preliminary Analyses Ronald G. Downey, Leon H. Rappoport, Amy E. McCabe, Michael J. Tagler, and Scott H. Hemenover Kansas State University June 2002 Funded by the Office of Naval Research, Grant #N00014-01-1-0917 Why Job Burnout?: Why Job Burnout? Health is a major issue in the workplace Stress is one of the top-ten health problems at work Stress is related to a variety of health problems (e.g., hypertension) Job stress (burnout) is related to turnover Definition of Job Burnout: Definition of Job Burnout Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey Maslach, Jackson, and Leiter (1996) Emotional Exhaustion - the depletion of emotional resources Cynicism - distant attitude towards work Professional Efficacy (diminished) - expectations of continued success at work Antecedents of Job BurnoutCordes and Dougherty (1993): Antecedents of Job Burnout Cordes and Dougherty (1993) Job and Role Characteristics (e.g., role overload) Personal Characteristics (e.g., gender) Organizational Characteristics (e.g., organizational climate) “Big Five” Personality TraitsCosta and McCrae (1992): 'Big Five' Personality Traits Costa and McCrae (1992) Neuroticism- individuals who experience negative affects Extroversion – individuals who are sociable, assertive, etc. Openness to Experience – individuals who have have active imaginations and are attentive to their inner feelings Agreeableness - individuals who are fundamentally altruistic, sympathetic to others, and eager to help Conscientiousness - individuals who are purposeful, strong-willed, etc. Core Self-Evaluation (CSE)Judge and Bono (2001): Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) Judge and Bono (2001) A higher-order self-evaluative personality trait composed of: Self-Esteem Generalized Self-Efficacy Neuroticism (Emotional Stability) Locus of Control CSE is positively related to job satisfaction and performance Personality and Job Burnout: Personality and Job Burnout Past research has emphasized situational factors in job burnout Personality factors also influence job burnout: Neuroticism is associated with higher levels of burnout Agreeableness is associated with lower levels of burnout (Gaylord, 2001) CSE is associated with lower levels of job burnout (Tagler, McCabe, Downey, Hemenover, andamp; Rappoport, 2002) Coping With Job Burnout (Latack, 1986; Leiter, 1991): Coping With Job Burnout (Latack, 1986; Leiter, 1991) Control versus Escape Coping Control coping is dealing directly with a problem to resolve it Escape coping is dealing with the emotions resulting from a problem General Coping Techniques: General Coping Techniques Problem solving Planning actions, evaluating alternatives, seeking social support Positive thinking Maintaining a positive attitude, imagery, and self-talk Palliative measures Muscle relaxation, deep breathing, and meditation Personality and Coping with Burnout(Gaylord, 2001): Personality and Coping with Burnout (Gaylord, 2001) In an instructor-only sample, personality was related to the effectiveness of different coping strategies: Neuroticism Social support Level of effort Agreeableness Escape coping mechanisms Hypotheses Gaylord (2001); Tagler et al. (2002): Hypotheses Gaylord (2001); Tagler et al. (2002) CSE-specific training in coping should reduce job burnout compared to general (non-CSE specific) training CSE-specific training and general training should reduce burnout compared to no training Design Overview: Design Overview The longitudinal study took place in four phases: Pre-test (Fall, 2001): Ps provided information for screening and group assignment Training (February, 2002): Ps completed questionnaires and underwent burnout-coping training Online Journal Completion (March-April, 2002): Ps completed online questionnaires (bi-weekly) Post-test (April-May, 2002): Ps completed final measures of coping, burnout, etc. Design-Training: Design-Training All 4 groups attended two training sessions: Group 1: Control (No coping training) Session one: Completed questionnaires Session two: Received instructions on completing online journals Design-Training (cont’d.): Design-Training (cont’d.) Group 2: General burnout coping training Session one: Completed questionnaires Video and discussion of general coping techniques (e.g., positive imagery and self-talk, stretching, deep breathing) Session two: Reviewed session one training Received instructions on completing online journals Design-Training (cont’d.): Design-Training (cont’d.) Group 3: Low CSE-Specific Coping Training Session one: Completed questionnaires Video and discussion of general coping techniques (e.g., positive imagery and self-talk, stretching, deep breathing) Session two: Encouraged social support in coping with job burnout (Gaylord, 2001) Received instructions on completing online journals Design-Training (cont’d.): Design-Training (cont’d.) Group 4: High CSE-Specific Coping Training: Session one: Completed questionnaires Video and discussion of general coping techniques (e.g., positive imagery and self-talk, stretching, deep breathing) Session two: Encouraged increased effort in coping with job burnout (Gaylord, 2001) Reviewed instructions on completing online journals Method-Participants: Method-Participants 101 employed students (from an original sample of 309 students, 32.7%) completed all phases of the study Participants were assigned to one of four training groups Control (N=27) General Training (N=28) Low CSE Training (N=22) High CSE Training (N=24) Method-Measures: Method-Measures Maslach Burnout Inventory – GS (Maslach et al., 1996) Control-Escape Coping Scale (Latack, 1986) CSE Scales: NEO Five Factor Inventory (Costa andamp; McCrae, 1992) Self-Esteem (Rosenberg, 1965) Self-Efficacy (Judge, Locke, Durham, andamp; Kluger, 1998) Locus of Control (Levenson, 1981) Life Satisfaction (Diener, 1985) Optimism (Scheier andamp; Carver, 1985) Positive and Negative Affect Scales (Watson, Clark, andamp; Tellegen, 1988) Analyses: Analyses Analysis of Attrition Ps who did not complete the study were not found to differ in terms of personality, employment, and demographic variables from those who did. CSE and Burnout : (N=305) Emotional Exhaustion r = -.31 Professional Efficacy r = .35 Cynicism r = -.31 Training Analyses: Training Analyses Emotional Exhaustion 4 (experimental group) X 3 (time) repeated measures ANOVA No significant effect of Time F (2,194) = 0.627, NS. Group F (3,97) = 2.00, NS. Time X Group Interaction F (6,194) = 1.75, NS. Slide21: Emotional Exhaustion as a Function of Training Group Over Time Training Analyses (cont’d.): Training Analyses (cont’d.) Professional Efficacy 4 (experimental group) X 3 (time) repeated measures ANOVA on efficacy scores No significant effect of Time F (2,194) = 0.11, NS. Time X Group Interaction F (6,194) = 0.83, NS. Significant effect of group F (3,97) = 3.53, p andlt; .05, 2=.10, power =.77 Low CSE Ps report less efficacy than High CSE Ps Slide23: Professional Efficacy as a Function of Training Group Over Time Training Analyses (cont’d.): Training Analyses (cont’d.) Cynicism 4 (experimental group) X 3 (time) repeated measures ANOVA on cynicism scores No significant effect of Time F (2,192) = 0.63, NS. Time X Group Interaction F (6,192) = 1.88, NS. Significant effect of Group F (3,96) = 5.66, pandlt;.05, 2=.15, power =.94. Low CSE Ps more cynical than High CSE Ps Slide25: Cynicism as a Function of Training Group Over Time Exploratory Analyses: Exploratory Analyses Job Burnout values changed -- Test-Retest Reliabilities: Emotional Exhaustion rtt = .66 Professional Efficacy rtt = .68 Cynicism rtt = .73 Exploratory Analyses (cont.): Exploratory Analyses (cont.) Predicting Changes Time 1 to Time 3: Emotional Exhaustion – Low Core group had a greater decrease. Professional Efficacy – Individuals using Cognitive Reappraisal Coping had a larger increase. Cynicism – No differences found. Exploratory Analyses (cont.): Exploratory Analyses (cont.) Predicting Changes Time 2 to Time 3: Emotional Exhaustion – No differences found. Professional Efficacy – High core group showed more increases. Cynicism – The General Training Group had more increases. Summary: Summary Personality (CSE) is significantly and consistently related to job burnout. However, stress coping training was not found to significantly reduce job burnout. Exploratory analyses suggested that burnout was changing in a consistent fashion related to training group and coping strategies. Current Focus: Current Focus Do stress appraisal, coping style, and emotions relate to personality and burnout, and if so, how? Do these variables serve as moderators or mediators? Can we use these variables to better design burnout interventions? Future Analyses: Future Analyses Further Exploratory Analyses What predicts changes in Burnout? Are coping behaviors related to CSE and Burnout? Journal Data How stable are stress appraisal / coping style? Did our stress training impact these processes? Can we improve our prediction and prevention of burnout? Future Analyses (continued): Future Analyses (continued) Positive Psychology Measures Can measures of life satisfaction / positive emotionality increase our understanding of the relations between personality and job burnout? Job type, personality, and burnout (Theis, 2002) Are certain individuals more likely to experience burnout in certain occupations? Should we tailor burnout interventions based on both job type and personality factors? Potential Issues: Potential Issues Are we blaming the victims? Is it once again the nature versus nurture argument? If we cannot train coping skills, do we select on personality traits? References: References Cordes, C.L., andamp; Dougherty, T.W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout. Academy of Management Review, 18, 321-656. Costa, P. T. andamp; McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised neo personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and ) NEO-FFI) inventory professional manual. Odessa, FL: PAR. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. 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(2002, April). Burnout: Does the type of job make a difference? Paper presented at the Eighteenth Annual Undergraduate Psychology Research Convocation at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. Watson, D., Clark, L., andamp; Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070.