world Hunger

Information about world Hunger

Published on August 13, 2007

Author: FunSchool

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Determinism, Ideology and Folly in World Hunger:  Determinism, Ideology and Folly in World Hunger Gidon Eshel Dept. of the Geophysical Sciences Univ. of Chicago Chicago, IL 60637 Tel: (773) 702-0440 Email: [email protected] Web: http://geosci.uchicago.edu/~gidon World Hunger: Causes and Consequences Midwest Faculty Seminar, Univ. of Chicago, April 29-May 1, 2004 Plan::  is hunger inevitable? if not, how? if not, why not? Plan: World Population is:  about 6.4 billion people. At 2300 kcal a day, this means we need about 5.4 x 1015 kcal/year globally. World Population is Slide4:  Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations , FAOSTAT Statistical Database (FAO, Rome, 1997) mean, 1997: 2.7 T/hectare or 0.27 kg/m2 Slide5:  at roughly 4 kcal per gr, to feed everybody we need: or 5 x 106 km2 every year. Allowing for an efficiency of 50%, we get about 107 km2 per year. Since the Earth’s arable land surface area is about1,2,31.4 x 107 km2, we have more than enough land to feed everybody, with plenty to spare! 1: http://www.rockford-india.com/irrigation-arableland.htm 2: http://www.cnie.org/pop/conserving/landuse.htm 3: it in fact rises, at about 3 x 105 km2 (2.6 Pennsylvanias) per decade!! are people hungry?:  are people hungry? in absolute numbers, sadly, they are are people hungry? :  are people hungry? Source: The UN Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO 1998 yes, but as a fraction of the total the rates are declining Slide8:  undernou-rished, % of population 1990-92 1969-71 0 25 50 75 75 50 25 0 Source: The UN Food and Agri- -culture Organization, FAO 1997 The UN’s FAO also states that1:  '... As a world average, food availability for direct human consumption (on a per-person basis) grew 19 percent to 2720 Kcal/day between 1960 and 1994/96.' The UN’s FAO also states that1 1: FAO Symposium on Agriculture, Trade and Food Security: Issues and Options in the Forthcoming WTO Negotiations from the Perspective of Developing Countries, Geneva, 23-24 September 1999, Paper 1: Salient trends in world agricultural production, demand, trade and food security meanwhile, as worldwide hunger rates drop, :  meanwhile, as worldwide hunger rates drop, a new, perhaps just as devastating, and most likely harder to fix, problem rapidly arise... age From: Physical Activity and Older Americans: Benefits and Strategies. June 2002. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Centers for Disease Control. http://www.ahrq.gov/ppip/activity.htm Slide11:  Historic rates of people with BMIandgt;30 kg m-2 in various countries. (Source: Kopelman, P. G., Obesity as a medical problem. Nature, 404, April 6 2000, pp. 635-643) Slide12:  US prevalence of BMIandgt;30 in ‘91, ‘95 and 2000. Sources: Mokdad, A. H., JAMA, 282(16), October 27, 1999, 1519-1522 Mokdad, A. H., JAMA, 286(10), September 12, 2001, 1195-1200 no data andlt;10% 10%-14% 15%-19% andgt;20% Slide13:  Global data. Sources: Mokdad, A. H., JAMA, 282(16), October 27, 1999, 1519-1522 Mokdad, A. H., JAMA, 286(10), September 12, 2001, 1195-1200 Slide14:  the problem with obesity 1:  the problem with obesity 1 Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Promoting Active Lifestyles Among Older Adults. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Nutrition and Physical Activity. the problem with obesity 2:  the problem with obesity 2 Source: Thompson, D. and A. M. Wolf, 2001: The medical-care cost burden of obesity.Obesity Reviews  2 (3), 189-197. Australia, 1994, 2% Canada, 1999, 2.4% France, 1995, 2% N. Zealand 1997, 2.5% Portugal 2000, 3.5% USA, 1986, 5.5% USA, 1998, 5.7% USA, 1999, 7% Percentage of national health expenditures attributable to obesity, by country. the problem with obesity 3:  the problem with obesity 3 '... Obesity is associated with a 36 percent increase in inpatient and outpatient spending and a 77 percent increase in medications, compared with a 21 percent increase in inpatient and outpatient spending and a 28 percent increase in medications for current smokers.' Source: Strum, R., 2002: The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs. Health Affairs, 21(2), 245-253 and one more:  and one more years of follow-up $0 $25,000 BMIandgt;30 25andlt;BMIandlt;30 20andlt;BMIandlt;25 8 9 7 6 from Thompson, D., et al., 2001: Body Mass Index and Future Healthcare Costs: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Obesity Res., 9, 210-218. so the picture is:  so the picture is schematically something like time proportion of the whole global population too much too little according to G. Gardner and B. Halwei, Worldwatch paper 150: Overfed and Underfed, March 2000, the crossover occured in 2000, with ~1.1 billion apiece 2000 the amazing thing is:  the amazing thing is that in fact, too much (obesity) does not necessarily mean abundance! '... Malnutrition and obesity coexist in the same settings ...' Source: Dr. Manuel Pena, the Pan American Health rganization, 'Obesity and Poverty: A New Public Health Challenge.' what causes the shift toward obesity?:  what causes the shift toward obesity? of the multitude of causes, I subjectively find particularly important: urbanization and other social trends the structure of agriculture defective distribution system, warped inputs into it cause 1: people don’t move enough:  Source: Cordain, L. et al., 1998: Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness: An evolutionary perspective. Int. J. Sports Med., 19(5), 328-335. cause 1: people don’t move enough cause 2: the structure of world agricultural production:  cause 2: the structure of world agricultural production the number of US farms drop:  the number of US farms drop while their size increases:  while their size increases 4-firm concentration ratio From: Heller and Keoleian, Life cycle- -based sustainability indicators for assessment of the US food system. Univ. of Michigan Center for Sustainable Systems Report No. CSS00-04, Dec. 6 2000 e.g., takeMinnesota:  e.g., take Minnesota milk production by herd size From: Hammond, J. W., Univ. of Minnesota, Minn. Ag. Econ. News- letter, No. 697, summer 1999 profit: only 3.5%!!:  profit: only 3.5%!! Source: USDA Food Review, 2000, 23(3), 27-30. or, worse yet:  or, worse yet From: Food Marketing Institute, Annual Financial Review 2002-2003, available online at http://www.fmi.org/ a penny a buck!! as a result, competition is fierce:  as a result, competition is fierce and food manufacturers are desperate...:  and food manufacturers are desperate... From: Table 1, page 12, Nestle, M., Food Politics, Univ. of California Press, 2002 9 leading food manufacturers to convince people to buy their stuff :  to convince people to buy their stuff food manufacturers must process as heavily as they possibly can, so as to 'add value'... 1998 data; from Nestle, M., Food Politics,Univ. of California Press also, they make stuff sweet, salty and fatty:  also, they make stuff sweet, salty and fatty a huge issue is subsidies:  a huge issue is subsidies Source: Environmental Working Group Farm Database Version 2.0 http://www.ewg.org/ US data Slide34:  2003 data. Source: National Corn Growers Association, http://www.iowafarmer.com/corncam/corn.html 54% animal feed 8% sweeteners Slide35:  Source: http://www.biotech-info.net/ part of the reason burgers are so cheap part of the reasons Coke is so cheap also, because subsidy promotes large farms:  also, because subsidy promotes large farms corn subsidy concentration Source: Environmental Working Group Farm Database Version 2.0 http://www.ewg.org/ subsidy received ‘95-’02: top 1%: $25 billion bottom 80%: $15 billion farm lobby is so damn powerful...:  farm lobby is so damn powerful... So::  So: A policy that will fight obesity is also one consistent with fighting world hunger. Unfortunately, such a policy will be roughly the inverse of the policies now in effect in the US. As the New York Times (Editorial, April 13, 2004) puts it: ' ... Almost two-thirds of America's corporations paid no federal income taxes during the late 1990's, when corporate profits were soaring. Nine out of 10 companies paid less than the equivalent of 5 percent of their total income ... '

Related presentations


Other presentations created by FunSchool

Got Discipline PowerPoint
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Got Discipline PowerPoint

InterAccess
30. 04. 2008
0 views

InterAccess

lockin1
28. 04. 2008
0 views

lockin1

IIEF MCX
22. 04. 2008
0 views

IIEF MCX

MapAccNov01
18. 04. 2008
0 views

MapAccNov01

ICW Presentation
17. 04. 2008
0 views

ICW Presentation

Lecture 9 Macro model
16. 04. 2008
0 views

Lecture 9 Macro model

ATE12
14. 04. 2008
0 views

ATE12

TeAM NEF ESF Report
13. 04. 2008
0 views

TeAM NEF ESF Report

SAEA06Robinson
10. 04. 2008
0 views

SAEA06Robinson

Larose
09. 04. 2008
0 views

Larose

dairybreeds
19. 10. 2007
0 views

dairybreeds

hex
18. 09. 2007
0 views

hex

infocom2001sfb
18. 09. 2007
0 views

infocom2001sfb

2003 Student Info System IBM
18. 09. 2007
0 views

2003 Student Info System IBM

vfpweb
18. 09. 2007
0 views

vfpweb

Fine Art and Literature
13. 10. 2007
0 views

Fine Art and Literature

cell3
15. 10. 2007
0 views

cell3

opel
19. 10. 2007
0 views

opel

horrocks
23. 10. 2007
0 views

horrocks

yang45
15. 10. 2007
0 views

yang45

GGFpart2
28. 11. 2007
0 views

GGFpart2

Sunken backbone game
10. 10. 2007
0 views

Sunken backbone game

BrandtPadua
16. 10. 2007
0 views

BrandtPadua

Lectures4 5 Ch2
07. 11. 2007
0 views

Lectures4 5 Ch2

vugia emerging
23. 10. 2007
0 views

vugia emerging

1a co clustering
19. 11. 2007
0 views

1a co clustering

mobopts 5
01. 12. 2007
0 views

mobopts 5

majoranastatus
10. 12. 2007
0 views

majoranastatus

Northern Renaissance Art
14. 12. 2007
0 views

Northern Renaissance Art

unconscious Origins
13. 08. 2007
0 views

unconscious Origins

Vending Ala Carte
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Vending Ala Carte

weaning mice
13. 08. 2007
0 views

weaning mice

Xiushi Yang
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Xiushi Yang

LarsonWelcome
16. 10. 2007
0 views

LarsonWelcome

Ken stellar halo
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Ken stellar halo

African Union 2050
23. 12. 2007
0 views

African Union 2050

frfin
12. 10. 2007
0 views

frfin

Bhutan Hunger presentation RCC
04. 01. 2008
0 views

Bhutan Hunger presentation RCC

10 31 05 chaps 15 16
02. 11. 2007
0 views

10 31 05 chaps 15 16

HAtrash
15. 10. 2007
0 views

HAtrash

gti pmgti
24. 10. 2007
0 views

gti pmgti

Uniform Wear
18. 09. 2007
0 views

Uniform Wear

Lsn 6 Maya and Inca
20. 11. 2007
0 views

Lsn 6 Maya and Inca

monster
21. 11. 2007
0 views

monster

campusmap
28. 12. 2007
0 views

campusmap

wolson presentation
17. 10. 2007
0 views

wolson presentation

thurston
09. 10. 2007
0 views

thurston

compfpm flood plain functions
03. 01. 2008
0 views

compfpm flood plain functions

jeff kephart 11 03
18. 09. 2007
0 views

jeff kephart 11 03

LACEApresJZ1
26. 10. 2007
0 views

LACEApresJZ1

Wedding PP Presntation attach
27. 11. 2007
0 views

Wedding PP Presntation attach

RHCh1
20. 02. 2008
0 views

RHCh1

MATERIAL HANDLING PREVIEW
26. 02. 2008
0 views

MATERIAL HANDLING PREVIEW

unaids
13. 08. 2007
0 views

unaids

tgs04b
18. 09. 2007
0 views

tgs04b

about
28. 09. 2007
0 views

about

CPPStudyPhysicalProt ection
19. 11. 2007
0 views

CPPStudyPhysicalProt ection

nliwiSCS
12. 10. 2007
0 views

nliwiSCS

TurfBMP81704
14. 02. 2008
0 views

TurfBMP81704

CAlbala
22. 10. 2007
0 views

CAlbala

LT SLIDE show
11. 03. 2008
0 views

LT SLIDE show

marie curie jenam june 2005
13. 03. 2008
0 views

marie curie jenam june 2005

volcanoes group5
25. 03. 2008
0 views

volcanoes group5

gusev
15. 10. 2007
0 views

gusev

Parent Presentation predators
01. 01. 2008
0 views

Parent Presentation predators

Williams Tanzania
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Williams Tanzania

PrelimI
07. 10. 2007
0 views

PrelimI

personalities
12. 10. 2007
0 views

personalities

MeetingFreightDataCh allenges
28. 02. 2008
0 views

MeetingFreightDataCh allenges

04 19 SW
29. 10. 2007
0 views

04 19 SW

APP The American Experience WK3
17. 12. 2007
0 views

APP The American Experience WK3

062507
04. 03. 2008
0 views

062507

wedekind
08. 10. 2007
0 views

wedekind

IZMO CONCIERGE
30. 10. 2007
0 views

IZMO CONCIERGE

eh wellseptic
07. 11. 2007
0 views

eh wellseptic

20070114 sanog9 apnic update
27. 03. 2008
0 views

20070114 sanog9 apnic update

ATCNewswireCatalogue EN Q207
02. 10. 2007
0 views

ATCNewswireCatalogue EN Q207

db pres okutani whois
09. 10. 2007
0 views

db pres okutani whois

hotchips 2004 motes
18. 06. 2007
0 views

hotchips 2004 motes

gww sid july27
18. 06. 2007
0 views

gww sid july27

eolson AUV2004
18. 06. 2007
0 views

eolson AUV2004

EMS Stake holders
18. 06. 2007
0 views

EMS Stake holders

edinburgh condor tutorial
18. 06. 2007
0 views

edinburgh condor tutorial

dztalk 3
18. 06. 2007
0 views

dztalk 3

dw olap
18. 06. 2007
0 views

dw olap

Digital Photos Hitchcock
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Digital Photos Hitchcock

DGov transform wo notes web
18. 06. 2007
0 views

DGov transform wo notes web

defense
18. 06. 2007
0 views

defense

palais 04
18. 09. 2007
0 views

palais 04

chop06
29. 10. 2007
0 views

chop06

MISR images Aug2001
21. 10. 2007
0 views

MISR images Aug2001

PresentacionGobCorp2 003
22. 10. 2007
0 views

PresentacionGobCorp2 003

cmc2q06
18. 09. 2007
0 views

cmc2q06

AfricanAmericans A Z
03. 10. 2007
0 views

AfricanAmericans A Z

Proper KeyBoarding Technique
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Proper KeyBoarding Technique

Dinosaurs
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Dinosaurs

Memories
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Memories

Like - Having Different Hobbies
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Like - Having Different Hobbies

humanity
15. 06. 2007
0 views

humanity

Volcanoes are Hot Stuff
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Volcanoes are Hot Stuff

China2005NoAnimation
23. 10. 2007
0 views

China2005NoAnimation

BTL Statistics2005
18. 09. 2007
0 views

BTL Statistics2005

Dillon
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Dillon

infovis03 talk slides
18. 09. 2007
0 views

infovis03 talk slides

Block 6 Basler Ausschuss
16. 10. 2007
0 views

Block 6 Basler Ausschuss

scarlett 28oct05
18. 09. 2007
0 views

scarlett 28oct05

barrier
18. 09. 2007
0 views

barrier

SNIMA BTP
24. 10. 2007
0 views

SNIMA BTP

familyweek3
24. 02. 2008
0 views

familyweek3

rutkowska bheurope2006
18. 09. 2007
0 views

rutkowska bheurope2006

ATA2007 US MA MReyna
23. 10. 2007
0 views

ATA2007 US MA MReyna

P Jonson AIC
18. 10. 2007
0 views

P Jonson AIC

Denver 05b
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Denver 05b

6 WP4 TRT
20. 03. 2008
0 views

6 WP4 TRT

Enigma1
31. 12. 2007
0 views

Enigma1

P416 Lec5 S07
27. 09. 2007
0 views

P416 Lec5 S07

mulligan
18. 09. 2007
0 views

mulligan