Published on December 4, 2007
Meditation for Therapists: Meditation for Therapists C. Alexander Simpkins PhD Annellen M. Simpkins PhD Introduction to the West: Introduction to the West West’s first introduction to Eastern meditation & Eastern religions The First World Parliament of Religions 1893 in Chicago Brought great teachers Vivekananda (1863-1902) Hindu yogi, practitioner of vedanta Spokesman for common features in all religions Opened the way for scientific inquiry Introduction to the West continued: Introduction to the West continued D.T. Suzuki (1870-1966) Introduces Zen and Daoism Sponsored in the US to translate classics for Paul Carus, publisher Influential teacher of Zen and Buddhism for westerners J. Krishnamurti (1895-1986) Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (b. 1917 ) Founder of TM (Transcendental Meditation) Early Research: Early Research Arthur Deikman, (1963) opened the way Deautomatizing psychic structures Questionnaire Studies Identified factors such as self-transcendence, openness, feeling oneness with the eternal (Osis, Bokert, & Carson, 1973) Questionnaires before and after meditation (Kohr, 1977) Measurement Studies Press lever when a thought intruded Combined with questionnaires (Nuys, 1973; Kubose, 1976) Effects of Meditation: Effects of Meditation Yogis alter involuntary processes Swami Rama demonstrated ability to control internal states(Green, Green, and Walters, 1970) Dual Effect Increased beta for alertness & wakefulness (Schneider & Tarsis, 1986) Along with increased slower alpha & theta associated with relaxation (Bhatia et. Al., 2003) Improved quality of attention (Lutz et.al, 2004) Higher gamma baseline across both hemispheres using more of brain Decoupling of attention from arousal for calmer, more receptive attention Meditators using more of brain (Hankey, 2006) Increased brain coherence Broad activation for better mental development generally Forms of Meditation Researched: Forms of Meditation Researched Transcendental Meditation (TM) The Relaxation Response Following the breath, quieting the mind (Benson, 1978) Lower blood pressure Decreased blood pressure in borderline hypertensive subjects who practiced meditation (Benson, Matzetta & Kennchuck,1974) Treatment for Drug Abuse Decreased drug abuse with transcendental meditation (Benson & Wallace, 1972) Stress Reduction- (Dillbeck, Assimakis, Raimondi, Orne-Johnson, & Rowe, 1986) Forms of Meditation Researched: Forms of Meditation Researched Mindfulness Stress (Kabat-Zinn, 1995) Mindful learning (Langer, 1989) Alcohol & substance abuse (Witkiewitz, Marlatt & Walker, 2005) Qigong Less neurotic than non-meditators (Leung & Singhal, 2004) Forms of Meditation Researched: Forms of Meditation Researched Kundalini Yoga (Shannohoff-Khalsa, Kundalini Yoga Meditation: Techniques Specific for Psychiatric Disorders, Couples Therapy, and Personal Growth, 2006 Depression, addiction, sleep disorders, ADHD Meditation and Aging: Meditation and Aging Increased thickness of areas in cerebral cortex associated with Sustained attention (Lazar, et. al, 2005) Sensing of inner experiencing Increased spontaneity Visual and auditory sensing Regular meditators in normal lifestyles Older meditators’ cortical thickness comparable to 20 year olds Reduction of Hostility: Reduction of Hostility Large studies show decreased violence in a community (Hagelin et. Al, 1999). TM-4000 participants in Washington DC, June 7-30, 1993 Statistics from local police showed 15% lower crime rate Effects remained for 21 days following study Rhode Island Decreased smoking, alcohol consumption & auto accidents (Dillbeck,et al, 1987). Decreased wartime hostility in Lebanon Collective meditation study (Nader, Alexander & Davies, 1992). Meditation for Clinicians: Meditation for Clinicians Some have operationalized the methods Mindfulness Siegel, D., The Mindful Brain, 2007 Abstracted from any tradition Makes it useful and researchable Incorporate schemas from many traditions Simpkins, Meditation from Thought to Action, 2007 Keep the context: like gestalt figure/ground, the ground helps define the figure Many meditation methods from varied traditions shown to be effective Utilize methods from these many traditions Allows choice and options to treat different conditions How to Learn Meditation: How to Learn Meditation Meditation has cognitive and physiological dimensions. Eastern traditions with meditation as the source can help elucidate cognitive dimensions Taken for granted beliefs and expectancies make certain things possible. With different beliefs different expectancies become possible New schemas emerge, leading to others Such as controlling an involuntary process, Altering temperature Experience it personally Similar to hypnosis, meditation is an experience Skills improve with practice Great Meditation Traditions Yoga: Great Meditation Traditions Yoga More than postures Meaning of the word yoga: to yoke Ancient Hindu texts: the Vedas 5000-2000 BC Upanishads (800-600 BC) Early reference to the mind and how to control it Bhagavad Gita (fifth to second century BC) Krishna guides Arjuna to perform his life’s roles wholeheartedly through yoga Slide14: Krishna the Charioteer Patanjali Outline of Yoga (2nd Century AD): Patanjali Outline of Yoga (2nd Century AD) Yoga Sutras & Metaphor of a Tree with Eight Limbs Yamas Niyamas Asanas Pranayama Pratyahara Dharana Dhyana Samadhi Patterns of Cognition in Yoga: Patterns of Cognition in Yoga Withdraw from everyday consciousness Focus attention and keep it steady Concentration Selectively attend to one thing and not another Contemplation Cognitive and sensory sequenced, intentional reflection on the object of attention Join consciousness with the larger, greater universal consciousness All life is a universal consciousness Buddhism: Buddhism Origins in Hinduism Began with Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 B.C.) After enlightenment he was called the Buddha Theravada Renounce this life for nirvana Arhat ideal Mindfulness Mahayana Enlightenment in this life Bodhisattva ideal Emptiness Vajrayana-The Third Vehicle-Tibetan Buddhism Combines yoga and buddhism Uses symbolic practices Buddha to be Sakyamuni: Buddha to be Sakyamuni The Four Noble Truths: The Four Noble Truths 1) Life is Filled with Suffering Not pessimistic 2) Recognize the Root of Suffering Self-centered desires Impermanence 3) How to put an end to suffering Letting go of craving for pleasure and hating pain Cultivate non-judgmental awareness Appreciate things as they are 4) Follow the Eightfold Path Right views, right intent, right speech, right action right l livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right meditation Patterns of Cognition in Buddhism: Patterns of Cognition in Buddhism Detachment Skeptical step away from logic Non-judgmental awareness Co-dependent origination Emptiness Compassion and loving kindness Daoism: Daoism Ancient Chinese philosophy Later became a religion Based in the unformed, mystical guiding principle of tao, the way Legendary founder Laozi b. 604 BC Wrote the famous Dao De Jing Daoist Themes: Daoist Themes Dao Undifferentiated, unknowable source for all things The uncarved block: before it is anything can be all things Yin and Yang How the world appears to us Can’t know up without down, dark without light Qi All is moving, flowing, changing energy Non-Action: Wu-wei Take no action Go with the flow and let be Yin-Yang: Yin-Yang Daoist Applications: Daoist Applications Healing Acupuncture & acupressure Herbal medicine Painting Feng-shui Qigong Martial arts Zen Buddhism: Zen Buddhism Zen came from a blending of buddhism & taoism Bodhidharma (440-528) Legendary founder of zen Also founded martial arts Return to pure form of buddhism without rituals and elaborate practices Taught meditation Zen traveled to Korea and Japan and then to the West Bodhidharma painted by zen master Hakuin (1685-1768): Bodhidharma painted by zen master Hakuin (1685-1768) Zen Themes: Zen Themes Patterns of Cognition in Zen: Patterns of Cognition in Zen Clearing the mind does not clear away thinking, just clears conceptual thought Concepts are limiting Continual re-sampling from the stream of cognitive processes Any cognitive thought is like a sampling Rather than focusing on any one sample, stay with the stream Don’t take a cup, dip it into the river and claim, this is the river. Zen says, don’t just sample it, stay immersed in the river, awarely Set aside thought or expectation Each moment is new Direct perception is possible Zen Methods: Zen Methods Meditation Koans Thought without using reason Unconscious use of mind “Think about nothing and don’t think anything about it Zen Arts Cha-no-yu, the Tea Way Sumi-e Flower arrangement, gardening, dry gardens Martial arts Samurai: Samurai Sumi-e- The Way of the Brush: Sumi-e- The Way of the Brush Clinical Examples: Clinical Examples Mood Disorders (bipolar) Attuning to breathing Mindful awareness to recognize mood: body, thoughts, emotions, In the moment Fears Facing the fear Calm without thought: Zazen Pain Works with hypnosis Use meditation for attitude change: pain need not hurt you: there is no pain Hypnosis for alteration of sensation Couples Quiet sitting together Enhance the moment mindfully Enjoy the quiet shared oneness together Tools of Meditation:Mental Tools: Tools of Meditation: Mental Tools Attention and concentration Attention to an outer object Attention to an inner object Tools ContinuedVisualization & Imagination: Tools Continued Visualization & Imagination Tools of Meditation:Body Tools: Tools of Meditation: Body Tools Attention to standing Find your center Attention to sitting From standing to sitting Allowing sitting Awareness of object Place on hand, sense weight, difference, temperature Unconscious Tools: Unconscious Tools Recognizing unconscious cognition Analogy of watching a train pass Recognizing unconscious response Experiencing changes in hand sensations Linking through ideomotor activation Offer a suggestion for a specific experience Classic Meditations: Classic Meditations Filling the mind Breathing Counting the breaths Attention to the breathing Mindfulness: Non-judgmental awareness Mindful of body Mindful of emotions Mindful of thoughts Mindful of sitting now Classic Meditations: Classic Meditations Empty the mind Zazen Daoist emptying Advanced Meditation: Advanced Meditation Raising Qi Instant meditation Empty and full, neither and both Beyond concepts, unconscious Extending loving kindness Bibliography: Bibliography Abou Nader, T.M., Alexander, C. 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