Published on October 5, 2010
YOUTH-AT-RISK : YOUTH-AT-RISK Dr. A. ANAND, PhD. www.eisrjc.com www.peerc.com www.aerassociation.com What is an at-risk youth? : What is an at-risk youth? There are many social experts who study human behavior and argue that today’s kids are under stress as never before. Gang warfare, street stabbings and shootings, proliferation of drugs, binge drinking and the spread of sexually-transmitted diseases all make life tough for today’s teens. And the tragic result is that so many young people are caught up in a dangerous lifestyle and place their health and even their life at risk. How can you prevent teens from being placed in the at-risk category? : How can you prevent teens from being placed in the at-risk category? Can you stop any problems before they occur or at least become too serious? Down below are some factors about teenage behavior. If you find the teenagers involved in any of these situations, then there is a likelihood that they are at-risk. Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk : Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk 1. School life. Is your teen failing at school, are their grades dropping and are they in conflict with staff? 2. Family life. Is your teen rebellious? Do they argue often with their parents and/or siblings? Do they threaten to run away or even go missing for periods of time? Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk : Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk 3. The law. Is your teen in trouble with authority? Do the police come calling to interview your child about certain incidents? 4. The community. Is your teen a dropout from sporting clubs, the church or other local group activities? Have they abandoned the things which once took pride of place in their life? Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk : Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk 5. Unusual behavior. Is your teen prone to lose their cool beyond what might be considered normal? Are they angry and abusive? Do they threaten you or other family members? Have they dropped long-time friendships with their peers? 6. Depression. Is your teen spending long periods of time alone perhaps in their room? Do they speak less and make fewer comments in family conversations? Have they been medically examined for depression? Do they seem listless and disinterested in most things? Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk : Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk 7. Sexuality. Is your teen sexually active? Do you know their partner or partners? Is your teen aware of STDs? Is your teen well-informed when it comes to the dangers of unprotected sex? 8. Truthfulness. Have you caught out your teen telling lies? Do they seem secretive and not open and forthcoming? Are they unwilling to give details of where they’ve been or with whom? Do you suspect them of stealing from home? Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk : Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk 9. Fear. Are you afraid of your teen? Are you worried that what you say or do will cause them to explode and use bad language? Has your teen threatened you or your family? 10. Self-belief. Does your teen seem to lack confidence? Are they without motivation for most or many things? Do they have an “I don’t care” attitude to life? Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk : Some factors about teenage behavior those who are at-risk The above points cover most of how a troubled teen behaves. If a teenager fits into some of these categories, it is possible that the teen is at risk. It time for intervention! Mentoring Young People from High Risk Environments : Mentoring Young People from High Risk Environments Mentoring actually has MORE capacity for damage than benefits: however, benefits are significant and worthwhile when successful. Early termination of relationships is one main cause of adverse reactions to mentoring. Young people facing high risk are far more likely to terminate matches early than young people in lower risk categories. This means that programs serving young people facing high risk need to focus heavily on strong planning and program design that offers thorough support to mentors and mentees. Natural mentors can be just as important and effective with young people in need as arranged mentors Psychology of Resiliency : Psychology of Resiliency Dr. A. ANAND, PhD. www.eisrjc.com www.peerc.com www.aerassociation.com Psychological Resilience : Psychological Resilience Resilience in psychology is the positive capacity of people to cope with stress and catastrophe. It also includes the ability to bounce back to homeostasis after a disruption. Thirdly, it can be used to indicate having an adaptive system that uses exposure to stress to provide resistance to future negative events Definition of Resilience : Definition of Resilience Resilience is defined as a dynamic process that individuals exhibit positive behavioral adaptation when they encounter significant adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats, or even significant sources of stress Expressions of Resilience : Expressions of Resilience Resilience can be described by viewing: Good outcomes regardless of high-risk status, Constant competence under stress, Recovery from trauma, and Using challenges for growth that makes future hardships more tolerable. Expressions of Resilience : Expressions of Resilience Resilient people are expected to adapt successfully even though they experience risk factors that are against good development. Risk factors are related to poor or negative outcomes. For example, poverty, low socioeconomic status, and mothers with schizophrenia are coupled with lower academic achievement and more emotional or behavioral problems. Expressions of Resilience : Expressions of Resilience Risk factors may be cumulative, carrying additive and exponential risks when they co-occur. When these risk factors happen, according to a study conducted on children, resilient children are capable of resulting in no behavioural problems and developing well. Additionally, they are more active and socially responsive. These positive outcomes are attributed to some protective factors, such as good parenting or positive school experiences. Expressions of Resilience : Expressions of Resilience Resilience is also treated as an effective coping mechanism when people are under stress, such as divorce. Some protective factors attributing to resilient children in single-family, for example, are adults caring for children during or after major stressors (e.g., divorce). Expressions of Resilience : Expressions of Resilience Finally, resilience can be viewed as the phenomenon of recovery from a prolonged or severe adversity, or from an immediate danger or stress Factors Related to Resilience : Factors Related to Resilience Several factors are found to modify the negative effects of adverse life situations. The primary factor is to have relationships that provide care and support, create love and trust, and offer encouragement, both within and outside the family. Additional factors are also associated with resilience, like the capacity to make realistic plans, having self-confidence and a positive self image, developing communications skills, and the capacity to manage strong feelings and impulses. Factors Related to Resilience : Factors Related to Resilience A number of other factors that promote resilience have been identified: The ability to cope with stress effectively and in a healthy manner Having good problem-solving skills Seeking help Holding the belief that there is something one can do to manage your feelings and cope Factors Related to Resilience : Factors Related to Resilience Having social support Being connected with others, such as family or friends Self-disclosure of the trauma to loved ones Spirituality Having an identity as a survivor as opposed to a victim Helping others Finding positive meaning in the trauma Resilience Building : Resilience Building The American Psychological Association suggests "10 Ways to Build Resilience", (1) Maintaining good relationships with close family members, friends and others; (2) To avoid seeing crises or stressful events as unbearable problems; (3) To accept circumstances that cannot be changed; Resilience Building : Resilience Building (4) To develop realistic goals and move towards them; (5) To take decisive actions in adverse situations; (6) To look for opportunities of self-discovery after a struggle with loss; (7) Developing self-confidence; (8) To keep a long-term perspective and consider the stressful event in a broader context Resilience Building : Resilience Building (9) To maintain a hopeful outlook, expecting good things and visualizing what is wished; (10) To take care of one's mind and body, exercising regularly, paying attention to one's own needs and feelings and engaging in relaxing activities that one enjoys. Learning from the past and maintaining flexibility and balance in life are also cited. Children and Resilience : Children and Resilience Resilience is different for every child because every child is developing at a different pace. That means that we cannot expect children to use the same model and techniques to form resilience but we help children learn resilience similar to the way we teach a child how to play soccer or how to play a musical instrument Children and Resilience : Children and Resilience In order to help foster resilience in a child to overcome stressful circumstances you must give that individual a sense of ownership and help them self-evaluate both the situation and what they are in control of and what they are not in control of. A self-help, consciousness-raising quiz on which a child or teen can estimate his or her own resilience can be administered. A youth who fills out the quiz is invited to discuss coping strengths or problems with a parent or other adult. Building Resilience in the Classroom : Building Resilience in the Classroom Resilient children is described as working and playing well and holding high expectations, have often been characterized using constructs such as locus of control, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and autonomy Building Resilience in the Classroom : Building Resilience in the Classroom Chess identified “adaptive distancing” as the psychological process whereby an individual can stand apart from distressed family members and friends in order to accomplish constructive goals and advance his or her psychological development. Moving away to college after high school is a way of practicing adaptive distancing Building Resilience in the Classroom : Building Resilience in the Classroom Classrooms in which students are given an opportunity to respond, an engaging cooperative learning environment, a participating role in setting goals, and a high expectation for student achievement. All of these characteristics help students develop a sense of belonging and involvement. These two characteristics help to reduce the feelings of alienation and disengagement. Building Resilience in the Classroom : Building Resilience in the Classroom With that kind of connection in the school, students will have more of a protective shield against the adverse circumstances that life throws at them. The role a family has in fostering resilience in a child : The role a family has in fostering resilience in a child Fostering resilience in children requires family environments that are caring and structured, hold high expectations for children’s behavior, and encourage participation in the life of the family. Most resilient children have a strong relationship with at least one adult, not always a parent, and this relationship helps to diminish risk associated with family discord. The role a family has in fostering resilience in a child : The role a family has in fostering resilience in a child Bernard found that even though divorce produces stress, the availability of social support from family and community can reduce stress and yield positive outcomes. Any family that emphasizes the value of assigned chores, caring for brothers or sisters, and the contribution of part-time work in supporting the family helps to foster resilience. Life Skills : Life Skills Dr. A. ANAND, PhD. www.eisrjc.com www.peerc.com www.aerassociation.com Exploring Life Skills : Exploring Life Skills What Skills Do I Have? Objectives To explore the concept of life skills. To know the life skills used by the participants in their day-today life Exploring Life Skills : Exploring Life Skills “All of us have”, “Some of us have” and “None of us have”. Expected Outcomes Peer Educator will become aware of the life skills that the participants possess and use in their day-to-day life. Participants will know about life skills and their use in day -to-day life. Definition of Life Skills : Definition of Life Skills The World Health Organization defines life skills as "abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life Definition of Life Skills : Definition of Life Skills In primary and secondary education, life skills may refer to a skill set that accommodates more specific needs of modern industrialized life; examples include money management, foo preparation, hygiene, basic literacyand numeracy, and organizational skills. TEN Core Life skills : TEN Core Life skills UNICEF, UNESCO and WHO list the TEN core life skill strategies and techniques as: Problem Solving, Critical Thinking, Effective Communication Skills, Decision-making, Creative Thinking, Interpersonal Relationship Skills, Self-awareness, Building Skills, Empathy, and Coping With Stress and Emotions. Learning to know: Cognitive Abilities : Learning to know: Cognitive Abilities 1. Decision making and problem solving skills Information-gathering skills Evaluating future consequences of present actions for self and others Determining alternative solutions to problems Skills of analysis regarding the influence of values and attitudes of self and others on motivation Learning to know: Cognitive Abilities : Learning to know: Cognitive Abilities 2. Critical thinking skills Analyzing peer and media influences Analyzing attitudes, values, social norms and beliefs and factors affecting these Identifying relevant information and information sources Learning to be: Personal Abilities : Learning to be: Personal Abilities 3. Skills for increasing internal locus of control Self-esteem and confidence-building skills Self-awareness skills including awareness of rights, influences, values, attitudes, strengths and weaknesses Goal-setting skills Self-evaluation, Self-assessment, and Self-monitoring skills Learning to be: Personal Abilities : Learning to be: Personal Abilities 4. Skills for managing feelings Anger management Dealing with grief and anxiety Coping skills for dealing with loss, abuse, trauma Learning to be: Personal Abilities : Learning to be: Personal Abilities 5. Skills for managing stress Time management Positive thinking Relaxation techniques Learning to live together: Interpersonal Abilities : Learning to live together: Interpersonal Abilities 6. Interpersonal communication skills Verbal and nonverbal communication Active listening Expressing feelings; giving feedback (without blaming) and receiving feedback Learning to live together: Interpersonal Abilities : Learning to live together: Interpersonal Abilities 7. Negotiation and refusal skills Negotiation and conflict management Assertiveness skills Refusal skills 8. Empathy Ability to listen to and understand another's needs and circumstances and express that understanding Learning to live together: Interpersonal Abilities : Learning to live together: Interpersonal Abilities 9. Cooperation and teamwork Expressing respect for others' contributions and different styles Assessing one's own abilities and contributing to the group 10. Advocacy skills Skills of influence and persuasion Networking and motivation skills What Use are Life Skills? : What Use are Life Skills? Three Critical Areas of Life Skills Communication/interpersonal skills group, Decision making, Critical thinking skills group and 3. Coping/self management skills group. Expected Outcomes: Participants will understand why life skills are critical for a healthy and productive life.