ZigBee Master

Information about ZigBee Master

Published on April 8, 2008

Author: Silvestre

Source: authorstream.com

Content

ZigBee :  ZigBee Agenda Intro Market Applications Requirements Standardization Technical Specification Software stack Integration ZigBee :  ZigBee A very low cost, low power consumption two-way, wireless communications standard for automation, toys, & PC peripherals MARKET:  MARKET ZigBee Mission::  ZigBee Mission: To bring about the existence of a broad range of interoperable consumer devices by establishing open industry specifications for unlicensed, untethered peripheral, control and entertainment devices requiring the lowest cost and lowest power consumption communications between compliant devices anywhere in and around the home. The Need for ZigBee:  The Need for ZigBee Low Power consumption 6 months to 5 years battery life for most applications Low Cost At least half the cost of Bluetooth solutions High density of nodes per network 250 nodes per network, multiple co-located networks Data rate requirements Few bits to 250kbps sufficient Simple protocol, Global Implementation 2.4GHz Standard in a fragmented market Many proprietary solutions, interoperability issues Pent up demand due to lack of standard Objective of ZigBee:  Objective of ZigBee Interoperable consumer devices Open industry specification Peripheral, control and entertainment devicesLowest cost and lowest power consumption Anywhere in and around the home Traget Market::  Traget Market: A multimedia PC with interactive gaming options or a 32" television equipped with Home Theatre features, Internet access (e.g. WebTV) or a video gaming console (e.g. Sega, Nintendo, Sony). These residents potentially have the need for advanced HID and toy solutions that could enhance their living or entertainment experiences. Low cost solutions for interconnectivity between toys, such as, TomoguchisExisting homes with installed security, home automation or HVAC systems, and new homes with plans for these systems. The Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) market may also find use for ZigBee products for controlling multimedia presentations, conference rooms, training rooms and automation or control functions. Must have features::  Must have features: Saftey meets Government regulations: As safe as coordless phone Unlicensed Band Low Cost BOM Reliability Throughput degrades gracefully Ease of Use… Ability to add/remove new devices Register once…authenticate each time Global market Minimum battery life 6months/2 years Network Clusters will grow in the Home:  AV Net PC Net Tel Net MODEM TV VCR Audio System STB Camcorder... PC Printer Scanner... Phone Fax... H.Auto Net Environmental Security Medical Domestic app… Pre 2001 Model SATELLITE TERRESTRIAL CABLE OWN CONTENT PHONE xDSL Network Clusters will grow in the Home Network Clusters will Interconnect/inter-operate in Home and Away:  TV VCR Audio System STB Camcorder... PC Printer Scanner... Phone Fax Environmental Security Medical Domestic app… 2001 Model and beyond SATELLITE TERRESTRIAL CABLE xDSL PHONE BB Wireless Network Clusters will Interconnect/inter-operate in Home and Away BOM/Node Price Development based on Dataquest, Instat and BMA Communications:  New technologies will lead to a sharp demand decrease in cost for the different applications Sharp demand decrease leads on the other hand to step increase in customer demand For 2000/1, <300kps; BOM < $6.00 <22Mbps; BOM < $20-30 >22Mbps; BOM < $60-70 For 2003/4, <300kps; BOM < $2.50 <22Mbps; BOM < $8-18 >22Mbps; BOM < $20-35 $ BOM/Node Price Development based on Dataquest, Instat and BMA Communications Market Size – Low Data Rate (No BT):  Market Size – Low Data Rate (No BT) Source: ABI, Dataquest, Internal Market Segmentation 2000 - 2004:  Market Segmentation 2000 - 2004 Industrial Applications will drive initial market Home Environment will become Important Over time, there will be varied Applications (Other) Wireless connectivity outlook::  Wireless connectivity outlook: Wireless Connectivity Industry Outlook:  10 100 1,000 10,000 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Wireless Connectivity Industry Outlook Bandwidth kbps Ricochet HomeRF OpenAir 802.11b Bluetooth WLAN technologies GSM GPRS Range Meters 802.11g ZigBee Wireless Connectivity Industry Outlook:  10 100 1,000 10,000 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Wireless Connectivity Industry Outlook Bandwidth kbps Bluetooth OpenAir Ricochet 802.11b Hiper LAN/1 HomeRF GSM GPRS EDGE Range Meters ZigBee Wireless Connectivity Industry Outlook:  10 100 1,000 10,000 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Wireless Connectivity Industry Outlook Bandwidth kbps GSM OpenAir Ricochet 802.11a GPRS EDGE Bluetooth 3G Hiper LAN/2 Bluetooth 2.0 Range Meters HomeRF ZigBee Industry Outlook :  Industry Outlook BT 2.0 standard rolled out 2000 2001 First 802.11a products on the market 2002 2003 HiperLAN 2 will premier 1999 1st BT devices on market, BT 1.1 standard rolled out BT special interest group becomes public, and BT 1.0 initial specs released 802.11b standard ratified 802.11a standard ratified 2002/03 HiperLAN 1 ratified in 1996 HiperLAN 1 products on the market HiperLAN 2 standard ratified in 2000 RF-Lite (ZigBee) SIG created ZigBee Products on the market ZigBee ratified (802.15.4) 802.11g standard ratified Target Applications 1:  Target Applications 1 Desktop PCs and Home Entertainment Systems (Home Theatre TV) Computer peripherals; HID devices Video conference equipment Remote control Video gaming equipment Multi-player PC & video games Playing a PC DVD game in front of a TV monitor Remote controls for audio and video equipment PC Enhanced & stand alone toys In-room coverage Home+yard coverage Target Applications 2:  Target Applications 2 Home appliances/general consumer electronic devices Existing home security systems, electrical & heating systems Wireless door and opening monitoring, system control Wireless Keypads Smoke and flame detectors Lighting and remote control of appliances in the home; Blinds/Shades Pool/Spa equipment Garage door openers Voice Control New device categories that have not yet been developed, such as news tablets, and keyboards with built-in displays Device Examples::  Device Examples: HID devices Video gaming equipment; Multi-player PC & video games Playing a PC DVD game in front of a TV monitor Remote controls for audio and video equipment Glass breakage monitoring (sensors); Wireless Keypads; Child Monitor; Smoke and flame detectors; Fire Pull stations; Personal transponders; Lighting and remote control of appliances in the home; Fireplaces Pool/Spa equipment Garage door openers Target Market summary::  Low Data Rate Radio Devices Industrial & Commercial Consumer Electronics Personal Healthcare Toys & Games Home Automation PC Peripherals Target Market summary: Market Requirements:  Market Requirements Global licence free ISM band operation Unrestricted geographic use RF penetration through walls & ceilings Automatic/semi-automatic installation Ability to add or remove devices Possible voice support Market Requirements, cont...:  Market Requirements, cont... 10k-115.2kbps data throughput 10-75m coverage range (home/garden) Support for 32-255 nodes Support for 4 critical devices 4-100 co-located networks 0.5-2 year battery life Up to 5ms-1 permitted mobility Module cost: $1.5-$2.5 in 2003! Applications::  Applications: Human Input Devices (HID) Keyboard Mouse / Pointing Device Remote Controls (controls for audio & video equipment) Gaming Device Applications::  Applications: Home Automation and Control Automation Devices Control Devices Home Security Interactive Toys Success Factors:  Success Factors Low cost Data type support Ease of installation Reliable data transfer Short range operation Reasonable battery life Unlicensed band Unrestricted geographical use Global implementation Governmental regulations STANDARDIZATION:  STANDARDIZATION History:  History Low-rate solution for HomeRF, January 1998 Initial MRD, October 1998 Initial RSI/TRD, October 1999 Proposals submitted, July 2000 Initial specification, v0.2, September 2000 Proposal to IEEE 802.15.4, March 2001 Proposal accepted by IEEE, July 2001 HomeRF-Lite -> Firefly -> RF-Lite -> ZigBee:  HomeRF-Lite -> Firefly -> RF-Lite -> ZigBee Description Low data rate (<250kbps), very low cost (BOM<$6.00) consumer market Replaces wired solutions that require low data rates Replaces IrDA links with a low cost wireless network Simple MAC protocol: master-slave or virtual point-to-point applications, reduces system compexity Applications: peripherals to PC, temperature control, home security, toys, etc. Some Participants (22 Companies in total):  Some Participants (22 Companies in total) Technical::  Technical: Protocol Features:  Protocol Features Master/slave topology Automatic network configuration Dynamic slave device addressing Virtual peer-to-peer links (pairing) Full handshaking for packet transfers Power management features Up to 254 (+ master) network nodes Protocol Features Cont...:  Protocol Features Cont... CSMA-CA channel access mechanism 28kbps (Optional) & 200kbps (actual) data throughput Service discovery Low impact internet capability ZigBee Protocol Stack:  Silicon ZigBee Stack Application Customer ZigBee Alliance IEEE ZigBee Protocol Stack Bluetooth Protocol Stack :  Silicon HOST MODULE Bluetooth Stack Applications Bluetooth Protocol Stack Direct Sequence:  Direct Sequence Spread spectrum regulations allow higher transmit power Longer range Transmit power: -4 - +20dBm Direct sequence Faster acquisition than frequency hopping Complexity in digital domain (cheaper) Spread using length 11 bit Barker sequence Optimal autocorrelation properties Short sequence gives fast acquisition Used in IEEE802.11 Raw Bit Rates:  Raw Bit Rates 250kbps 28kbps low bit rate option : Trade data rate for extra range via coding Over air bit rate remains 200kbps Longer preamble and SOP reliable synchronisation at low SNR Range Estimation:  Range Estimation Using Firefly TRD/RSI propagation model Approx. x2 Network Topology:  Network Topology Network coordinator Network node Communications flow Other Network Forms:  Other Network Forms Network coordinator Communications flow Ad-hoc network Gateway Network node Gateway enabled network Supported Traffic Types:  Supported Traffic Types Periodic data Application defined rate Intermittent Basic communication Repetitive low latency data Allocation of guaranteed time slots The Network Coordinator:  The Network Coordinator Transmits network beacons Sets up a network Manages network nodes Stores network node information Routes messages between paired nodes Receives constantly The Network Node:  The Network Node Is generally battery powered Searches for available networks Transfers data from its application as necessary Determines whether data is pending Requests data from the network coordinator Can sleep for extended periods Stack System Requirements:  Stack System Requirements 8-bit C, e.g. 80c51 Full protocol stack <32k Simple node only stack ~4k Coordinators require extra RAM node device database transaction table pairing table ZigBee Chip Set Solution Low Data Rate, DSSS @ 2,4GHz:  PA Micro + MAC+ RAM/ROM Radio Single Chip DSSS Radio + Modem Baseband ZigBee Chip Set Solution Low Data Rate, DSSS @ 2,4GHz Transmit Data Receive Data Feature Set RF Front-End IC:  Feature Set RF Front-End IC Single chip direct conversion transceiver for ZigBee applications in the 2.4GHz ISM band DSSS 2.2Mchips/sec Integrated antenna filter, LNA, VCO, synthesizer, PLL, preamplifier 3-wire control bus interface Direct conversion architecture from 2.45 GHz RF directly base band Battery powered design (min. VCC=1.8V) Output power –4 to +20dBm (0dBm typical) Digitally controlled RX gain control for DSSS No off-chip components (LNA, Pre PA, VCO, Synthesizer) ZigBee Base Band & MAC:  ZigBee Base Band & MAC Single chip Modem and MAC 80C51 (or equivalent) 8-bit low power micro controller core Interfaces: Full duplex UART for communication with host processor or other devices 2 3 wire buses for host and RF Front-end communication Master/slave I2C 2 analog inputs Minimum external components for low BOM CMOS 0.18 or other low cost similar capablity process Low Data Rate Roadmap:  Single Chip Solutions 2002 2003 Two Chip Solutions 2004 2005 Low Data Rate Roadmap Protocol Features:  Protocol Features Master/slave topology Automatic network configuration Dynamic slave device addressing Virtual peer-to-peer links (pairing) Full handshaking for packet transfers Power management features Up to 254 (+ master) network nodes Protocol Features Cont...:  Protocol Features Cont... CSMA-CA channel access mechanism 15ms frame structure TDMA slots can be allocated 28kbps & 250kbps data throughput Service discovery Low impact internet capability Frequency Bands:  Frequency Bands 2.4GHz ISM band Channel spacing: 4MHz F = 2404 + 4k MHz with k = 0, 1, …, 25 Common band: USA, Europe including France and Spain 2446.5 – 2475.0 MHZ k = 15, …, 22; equals 8 channels 915MHz ISM band USA only 868MHz Europe USA Europe Spain* France* 2400.0 2483.5 2446.5 2475.0 Japan* Common * Harmonization with FCC in progress Raw Bit Rates:  Raw Bit Rates 250kbps 28kbps low bit rate option: Trade data rate for extra range via coding Over air bit rate remains 250kbps Longer preamble and SOP reliable synchronisation at low SNR Range Estimation (meters):  Range Estimation (meters) Using Firefly TRD/RSI propagation model Approx. x2 Summary:  Summary Solution that effectively addresses the needs of the target market place with: Low data rate (<250Kbps) Low cost (~ BT/2) Very low power (6 months - 2 years on 2 AA batteries.) Network Solution ZigBee vs. Bluetooth :  ZigBee vs. Bluetooth Bluetooth Network Topology:  Bluetooth Network Topology Radio Design All radios are symmetric (can be master or slave) Pico-net 1 master: 7 active slaves 200+ parked slaves Each network has a unique hopping pattern / ID Networking:  Bluetooth: Dynamic ad-hoc transient Pico-nets Dynamic master role negotiation Extensive profiles to ensure compatibility Active / Park modes ZigBee: Large master-slave networks, with fast access Slave - initiated communication, (minimises slave energy requirements) Virtual peer-peer device pairing links Networking Typical Applications:  Bluetooth: Ad-hoc networks between capable devices Handsfree audio Screen graphics, pictures… File transfer ZigBee: Static networks between low cost devices Sensors Automation and control Data exchange Typical Applications Air Interface :  Bluetooth: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum(1600 hop/s) 720kb/s (for voice, audio and bulk data) Poll - reply channel access Very low latency frame structure (<1ms) ZigBee: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 250kb/s Optimised for short packets CSMA channel access TDMA slots can be allocated for critical devices ZigBee - Control Applications Bluetooth - Audio Air Interface Power Considerations :  Bluetooth: Power model as a mobile phone (regular charging) Designed to maximise ad-hoc functionality ZigBee: 2+ years from ‘normal’ batteries Designed to optimise slave power requirements Power Considerations Timing Considerations :  Bluetooth: New slave enumeration = >3s Sleeping slave changing to active = 3s typically Active slave channel access time = 2ms typically ZigBee: New slave enumeration = 30ms typically Sleeping slave changing to active = 15ms typically Active slave channel access time = 15ms typically Timing Considerations Error / Security Considerations :  Error / Security Considerations Cost Standpoint :  Bluetooth: Low added cost connectivity Take advantage of host processor power (ARM7…) 802.11 functionality but with simplified r.f. specifications ZigBee: Minimum slave cost Minimum software and processing (80C51), no host platform System design for eventual single-chip antenna-to-application realisation Cost Standpoint Solution Prices :  Two different solutions optimised for different applications…... Solution Prices

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